Nonviolence in Apartheid Context Blog ~ Archives

(Reports by Month, Abstracts; Pls See Below for each Month)

Report Archives (Overview, Present – 2002.3)  Archived via Toronto at WayBack Machine

Trends in Brief (By Year, 2017–2003)

Blog or eClippings on Nonviolence in Apartheid Violence


2017.4-12 Report on Apartheid-Nonviolence 101


_ Refugee – Grad Students “Abroad” Apps – Tools    _ 2018 Nonkilling, Nonviolence Syllabi Online

_ 2017 Nonkilling, Nonviolence, & Civil Disobedience Course Outline or Syllabi Online

_ 2017 Global Report Trends in Brief – Manuals on Nonkilling, Nonviolence, & Civil Disobedience

_ Nonviolence Manual 101 first eight pages in pdf. 


Please Note – 2017 was “occupied with” readying Nonviolence 101; An Experience-based Manual for Approaches, Methods, and Outcomes in Academic & Activist Organization – first draft working copy.  See 2018.1 Nonviolence 101 Body first eight pages   If you would like a “review” pdf copy emailed to you in exchange for your comments or critique, and, please, your relevantly-significant photos, logos, or graphics – from comics to illustrations – which will be separately-annotated and fully-cited in Appendices – please email


_ Refugee – Grad Students “Abroad” Apps – Tools


Americas (Including Sanctuary)


U.S. Freedom Cities

U.S. Immigration


U.S. Campus Sanctuary

U.S. Campus Sanctuary FAQs

U.S. Map, Sanctuary Cities, Counties, States

U.S. Sanctuary Coalitions

U.S. Unitarians

U.S. NYC Trinity Wall Street Church Apps

U.S. NYC Trinity Wall St Church Resources

Helping Hand – Brazilian University App in French, English, Spanish, Portuguese, & Arabic

 Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Sul – IFRS Universidade–UFRGS


Euro – International – Many Start in German – *Cloud Storage



2Bitnation app  





European Entry

First Contact  



*Google Drive


Google Translate

Harvard’s Let’s Go


Hope Austria

InfoAid app – Hungary, Nina Kov


5Love-Europe Refugee App

Medical Dictionary – Farlex

Refugeemap Facebook


Refugeemap Interactive

Refunite app via Blockchain


Refugee Aid App – Europe

Refugee Phrasebook interactive


Refugees Welcome



*6Speakfree Anonymous Chat

*7Trace the Face via Blockchain



8UNHCR Welcome Card app




1 French, German, English, Farsi, Arabic


2 Stateless Refugee Emergency Response IDs


3 Norwegians for Development Cooperation

4 Arabic to Turkish document translator – Mojahed Akil


5 France, Greece and Germany

6 French, English, Dari, German, Urdu, Arabic, Russian, Tigrinya


*6Speakfree Anonymous Chat

*7Trace the Face via Blockchain




8 Biometric identity management system – Amsterdam

Hard/Software Options        *MeshPoint router Compact, open-source – 3-D printable; Valent Turkovic, Croatian

   *DxtER app  AI “Tricorder” – iPad mini – re Zipline “sky ambulance” drone to remotely deliver blood, vaccines, & medicine

Cf Amy Weiss-Meyer & Alvaro Dominguez, “Apps for Refugees,” Atlantic (2017 May) Oscar Lopez, “These are the Apps Refugees are Using to Find Their Way in Europe,” Mashable, 2016


_ 2018 Nonkilling, Nonviolence Syllabi Online


Auburn U, MLK, LaFayette

Eastern Mennonite U, Gaming–Strategies, Bhagat

San Diego St, Social Change, Johnston

U of Hawai`i @ Manoa, Anthropology, Sponsel


_ 2017 Nonkilling, Nonviolence, & Civil Disobedience Course Outline or Syllabi Online 


AU Wesley, AL Civil Rights, Hunt

Bharati Institute, Rajasthan, Jainism, Prajna

Boston U, Civil Rights, Farmer

Boston U, People Power, Menchik

American U, Gender, Wien

U of W Ontario, 1960s, Sendzikas

Brown, Democracy, Blair

Cal Poly Pomona, Ahimsa, Tara Sethia

Carleton, Arab Uprisings, Nassif

Colgate, Israel–Palestine, Brummitt

Duke U, History, Miller

EMU-Ypsilanti, Revolution, Stahler-Sholk

Starr-King, Spirituality, Blake

Starr-King, Thurman, Rankow

Geneva Grad Inst, Disruption, Krastev

Gujarat Vidyapith U, Gandhi

Harvard, Organizing – Sharp, Ganz

ICRC – Zunes, Merriman, Stephen

American U, Middle East Nonviolence, Awad

Harvard, Strategy, Djinovic & Popovic

UC-Berkeley-Theology, Merton, Ronzoni

Cndn Mennonite U, Theology, Hiebert

LSU, Sharp, Howes

Manchester U, Literature, Gray-Brown

Miami U, Black Lives Matter, James

MIT, Middle-East, Nielsen & Christia

Northern Illinois U, Intl Relations, Thurber

Northwestern U, Conflict, Golubovic

Ohio U, Race, Taylor

San José State U, Intro, Benson

Starr King, Thurman, Rankow

Tel Aviv U, Civil Resistance, Berti

Tufts U, Resistance, Bartkowski, Merriman

Texas State, Movements, Reynold

U of Alberta, Gandhi, Farmer & Peace-Effray

U of Calgary, Standing Rock, Prud’homme

U of Denver, Movements, Merriam (Reading list)

U of MD, Conflict, Cunningham

U of New England, Australian NV, Branagan

U of SC, UN–Peaceteams, Carter

Washington State U, Race & Gender, Leonard



Independent Study & Extra-Academia Course Options


American U–AU, Negotiation, Wanis-St. John

Merrimack – Mel Duncan – Peace Teams

Metta Certificate in Nonviolence Studies Syllabus

Mindanao Inst–MPI, Peacebuilding, Rudy

Musicians without Borders

U of Michigan, Movement, Davenport


_ Global Report Trends in Brief – 2017 Manuals on Nonkilling, Nonviolence, & Civil Disobedience


2017.1–3 Report on Apartheid-Nonviolence 101


_ 2017 Manuals on Nonkilling, Nonviolence, & Civil Disobedience



Please note that — given 2017 geo-politics — there seem to be many more such guides, manuals, & syllabi already — To be later, likely, put online, in chart form – as below for 2016 & before at — and


_ 2017 Manuals on Nonkilling, Nonviolence, & Civil Disobedience


Hammad, Ahmad, Malik. “Nonviolence Movements in [Afghanistan] South Asia: The Case of Khudai 

   Khidmatgar 1929,” II/II Journal of Historical Studies (2016 July - Dec), 54-67.

McKesson, DeRay. Trump Resistance Manual (Gene Sharp – 2017).

Lakey, George. Toward a Living Revolution: A Five-Stage Framework for Creating Radical Social Change

   (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2016).

Veterans for Peace UK Draft Handbook (2017).

Wright, Scott. “Standing on Holy Ground: Responding to the Call for Sanctuary,” (El Paso TX; Washington

   DC: Center of Concern, Education for Justice, 2017).


_ 2017 Nonkilling, Nonviolence, & Civil Disobedience Course Outline or Syllabi Online, By Academy or Institution, Topic, and Trainer–Instructor


See Above


2016.10–12 Report on Apartheid-Nonviolence 101


_ 2016 Guide, Manual, or Handbook-level Nonviolence & Civil Disobedience Training Sources

_ Nonviolence Training with Civil Disobedience or Resistance Sources, (including theses and manuals);
 By Keyword search Date; (UMI theses via academic libraries)


_ 2016 Global Report Trends in Brief


Bloch, Nadine. “Education and Training in Nonviolent Resistance,” United States Institute of

  Peace Special Report, 2016.


Campbell, Anneke, & Linzey, Thomas.  Stories from the Community Rights Movement in the

 United States. Chicago: PM, 2016. &, “CNV Nonviolent Action Organizing Toolkit,” (2016

   Sept 18-25).


Carvalho de Oliveira, Gilberto. “Pacifist Approaches to Conflict Resolution: An Overview of

   Pragmatic Pacifism,” 7/1 JANUS.NET, E-Journal of International Relações Exteriores

  (Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa, Portugal, May-Oct, 2016), 3-18.


“Counterinsurgency and the Occupy Movement,” Counter-Insurgency Study Group, Minneapolis,

    MN, 2016.


Dillon, Amy. An Analysis of Gandhi's Constructive Program, Based on Galtung’s Theories

  (Ottawa, Canada: Saint Paul U, MA 2016).


Jeter-Bennett, Gisell. “We are Going Too!” The Children of the Birmingham Civil Rights Movement

  (OH State U, PhD, 2016), 951827753.


Protest Chaplain’s Handbook; A Guide for Spiritual Care at Protests (Unitarian Universalist

   Association, 2016).


Rutherfurd, Robert. Cases of Conscience: The Supreme Court and Conscientious Objectors to

  Military Service during the Post World War II Era (U of Montana - Missoula, MA, 2015).



_ Nonviolence Training with Civil Disobedience or Resistance Sources, (including theses and manuals); By Keyword search Date; (UMI theses often "free" or gratis in academic libraries)

_ 2016 Global Report Trends in Brief


2016.7–9 Report on Apartheid-Nonviolence 101*

_ Greece — Home-state founding Planetary “Marathon” Olympic Game

_ 2016 Nonkilling, Nonviolence, & Civil Disobedience Course Outline or Syllabi Online

 _ Greece — Home-state founding Planetary “Marathon” Olympic Games

 In Greece — the first torch-bearing nation-state hosting the now planetary Olympic Games — The most proactive Greek nonviolence groups have concerned the right to refuse to kill; Such as in I Refuse “conscientious objector” publications & Greek feminist groups tirelessly questioning NATO‒Greece.  A leading Greek Olympian “Gandhian” & Parliament Member–MP – Grigoris Lambrakis, MD, inaugurated local & global torch-bearing peace “marathon” dissent — Supporting demilitarization, the UN, and abolition of militarized NATO & Warsaw Pacts through Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament–CND & Non-Aligned Movement‒NAM networks.  Lambrakis & Mikis Theodorakis started what would become an annual Peace “Marathon” from Marathonas to Athena, Greece — Immune as a Piraeus–MP from police beat-downs & lock-ups, he had to run & walk that first April 1963 marathon’s last few miles alone to finish it.  After a subsequent Lambrakis’ Thessaloniki peace marathon advocacy speech, Thessaloniki police adjoining the northern NATO‒Greece epicenter tortured & killed Lambrakis.  By the following April, in 1964, a half million people gathered to commemorate Lambrakis in the Marathonas Marathon.  Fundamental to the world’s Summer Olympics, annual Marathonas & Athens Classic “Marathons” have since memorialized Lambrakis.  Greek students have continued to struggle against compulsory NATO‒Greece prison or conscription laws.  In 1973, e.g., a NATO-oriented 1347/73 regime decree authorized brutal conscriptive impressment of “antinational” male students.  Initially, Athens Polytechnic University–Polytechnion science & technology students nonviolently withstood the militarized police; Irrespective of their classroom access to explosive laboratory chemicals.  At the outset, a NATO - Greece “Colonels” dictatorial regime had to return recently-conscripted, shaved, & brushcut students back to the Polytechnion campus; And yet, in November 1973, NATO–Greek “Colonels” ravaged the Polytechnion campus with guns & tanks — Killing scores, wounding hundreds, & arresting 7,000.  The “Colonels” lapsed shortly after. For related Olympic issues carried-on through a torch-bearing peace “marathon” generating a ground-breaking Olympic Truce, historically, please see, e.g.,; Stefan Hollstein, Olympic Interpreting: A Guide to the Olympic Movement for Conference Interpreters (Maîtrise: Univ. Genève, 2015),; “Olympic Summer Games,” Historical Archives, Olympic Studies Centre, 2011 April 15,;;;;,_Greece; Greek Peace & Green party politics experience has paralleled that of the Dutch Groen Links.  See also Howard Clark, “E. III.1. Greece, Resisting the Colonels 1967-74,”;;;;;;;;; Marilena Simitis, New Social Movements in Greece: Aspects of the Feminist and Ecological Projects (London: U of London; London School of Economics & Political Science, PhD Thesis, 2002), 279n54, 289, & 290 n87;; Kostis Kornetis, Children of the Dictatorship; Student Resistance, Cultural Politics and the ‘Long 1960s’ in Greece (Berghahn, 2013, 2015), 275 & 228-51; Chapter 5; Vasilis Migkos, “The Polytechnic Uprising of Nov 1973: A Greek Nonviolent Movement against the Greek Junta,” TRANSCEND, 2013 November 18;; and Margaret Poulos, Arms and the Woman: Just Warriors and Greek Feminist Identity (Columbia University, 2009), 15, 167 ff.  Author lived & worked in Greece, (mostly Athens), in 1976-1977 Co-managing the Dutch-government-subsidized Student Hostel, Joseph House, a few hundred  meters south of the first “1896” Olympic Stadium; Hongkong then harboring the other such major Dutch Hostel worldwide.  Athens’ Goethe Institut then being a major real-time research location; Including many visits witnessing hunger strikers on the Polytechnion campus around an Athens March to evict the CIANATO and KGB wars out of Greece Mobilizing about two million people then into the national Syntagma Plaza; An Orthodox Easter-themed mobilization leading with “He Lives” banners memorializing Lambrakis;;; &

By-and-large NATO “Med” – Crete–Chania-Souda Bay–Greece & Rota–Spain – bases have vitally-projected serialized U.S. Oil gulf wars — Basing nuclearized submarines & aircraft carriers for extended surveillance & even Guantánamo-style torture rendition; Synchronized by a Larissa, Greece, EU Operations Headquarters–OHQ & a trans-corporate Thessaloniki oil war “nerve” epicenter base.  Weathering such hegemonic oil-war conflict, war resisters in 1940s-1980s NATO-Greece & Spain faced grim imprisonment decades for refusing to kill for the state.  One 1970s Athens Quaker, e.g., coped with over two decades in-jail or exile as choices; Dismal choices like those also in Turkey or Israel.  After 2000, digitally-forged nonviolence campaigns began reversing war resisters’ sentence times from “decades” down to “years” in-jail.  Though the hyper-militarized NATO “Med” bases would sequentially-project global oil wars across states like an Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Sudan, Syria, Afghanistan, Ethiopia, & IsraelPalestine; All logistically-coded in U.S. SE Asia war-era agendas.  Puerto Rico & NATO–“Med” bases would exhude uncontrolled carcinogenic “superfund”-level pollution — Endlessly-challenged across the Mediterranean by eco-nonviolence from Rota, Seville, Thessaloniki & Chania-Souda Bay.  Author lived & worked in Greece, Spain, & Turkey various times, for months at a time, in the mid-late 1970s; Spending a day, e.g., with the girlfriend of the Quaker war resister in Athens and also with an elderly Catalan editor & publisher in Barcelona Visiting the Montjuich (Montjuïc) wall where Franco-NATOSpain firing squads in the 1930s & 1940s executed that Catalan editor’s friends & colleagues en masse, as top leaders of a democratically-elected Azaña regime.  Mass execution estimates then stretched into million or so total killed in Spain.  He managed to impede Catalan executions by personally-interceding directly with the Queen of the Netherlands.  His son drove the Author through mountains above Barcelona to the Montserrat Monastery refuge, a cultural Catalan sanctuary which Franco-NATOSpain partisan paramilitary executions failed to overpower.  See “Montserrat Monastery,”; and “Manuel Azaña y Díaz, President of Spain,”;Shut down NATO - A WRI Campaign against NATO,”; “Country Report and Updates: Greece,”; “Country Report and Updates: Spain,”; & “Country Report and Updates: Turkey,”  In Google Search Translate, one can input, e.g. Greece + μη-βία (nonviolence) + thessaloniki + νατο (NATO) + “κόλπος της Σούδας” (Souda Bay) + νατο url.  For Spain, see especially or; & Red Antimilitarista y Noviolenta de Andalucía,;;; (Histórico Revistas Ahimsa); Women in Black, Sevilla, “Una Resistencia Feminista Antimilitarista en Red de Alternativas Multilugares: 20 Años de Mujeres de Negro en Andalucía Mujeres de Negro,” 8 Revista Internacional de Pensamiento Político (Sevilla, 2013), 369-384;; &; Along with;;; (war tax refusal videos);, (NATO-Rota).  See also;;; and

Old ancient or classic Greek demos “democracy” inherently-authorized only about 1% of the total Greek “people” then for “voting” — That 1% or so “voting” utterly-excluded slaves, women, immigrants, war resisters, or farmers unable to travel to “voting” in Athens’ Constitution Square–Syntagma.  Not all that different from “voting” in an oil-war-ruled Saudi Arabian gender-élite regime or NATO–Israel “voting” in apartheid Palestine.  In old Greece, principally Scythian slaves & slave-masters would train the core Athenian police force system.  From 15 – 30% of all the Greco-Roman people — about two-thirds of all Roman slaves — were moreover “branded” with collective Greek slave names.  Marketing over 10,000 slaves per day — Delos, Greece anchored Roman Empire slave markets across the Mediterranean; Boosted by pirates from Sicily to Cilicia.  Undergirded by a “Holy” Roman Empire, Greek-Scythian police tutorial systems would likewise pattern Mamluk slavery policing a thousand-year Ottoman Empire.   Astynomia, Αστυνομία, is the contemporary Greek word for police Combining Asty (for city) & Nomos (law); So “Police” derives from Greek & Latin politeia & politia words, respectively-specifying “voting” city-state citizens.  See Moses Finley, Democracy Ancient and Modern (Rutgers, 1973), 15 & 51; Moses Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology (NY: Viking, 1980), 82-86; Moses Finley, “Slavery and the Historians,” Social History (1979),; David Lewis, Greek Slavery in a Near Eastern Context: A Comparative Study of the Legal & Economic Distinctiveness of Greek Slave Systems (Durham, England: Durham University PhD Diss, 2011),; Jane Webster, “A Distant Diaspora: Thinking Comparatively about Origins, Migrations & Roman Slavery,” African Diaspora Archaeology Newsletter 13/1 (March 2010), 2;;Keith Fairbank, "The Strength of Rhodes and the Cilician Pirate," 6/1 - 15 Studia Antiqua (June 2008), 87 ff;; Elizabeth Baughman, “Scythian Archers: Policing Athens,” in Blackwell, ed., Demos: Classical Athenian Democracy, Stoa: A Consortium (2003),; Brown & Morgan, Arming Slaves: From Classical Times to the Modern Age (Yale, 2006); Stella Tsolakidou, “Police in Ancient Greece,” 2013 May 30,; and Elizabeth Gould Davis, First Sex (Penguin, 1975), 54-55;;;  Some international relations diplomatic historians consider the Delian League to have been a primary forerunner of the UN Security Council.  See also;;;;;; &

_ 2016 Nonkilling, Nonviolence, & Civil Disobedience Course Outline or Syllabi Online

Brandeis, Intro, Fellman

U of Waterloo, Intro, Funk

U of Toronto, Intro, Chass & Laroche

UC-San Diego, 1960s, Gagnon

American U, Gender, Wien

U of W Ontario, 1960s, Sendzikas

U of Waterloo, History, Regehr

Grebel Coll, History, Ewert

Houston CC, Gandhian Philosophy, Wrobel

U of CO, Indian Gandhism, Gautam

MSU, Gandhi, Hofmeister

Concordia U, Jainism, Orr

Starr-King, Spirituality, Blake

Starr-King, Thurman, Rankow

UC-Santa Cruz, Psychology, Hoffman

Conrad Grebel, Movements, Epp

Geneva Grad Inst, Resistance, Krause

McGill U, Third World, Norman

American U, Middle East Nonviolence, Awad

Harvard, Strategy, Djinovic & Popovic

UC-Berkeley-Theology, Merton, Ronzoni

Cndn Mennonite U, Theology, Hiebert

Concordia U, Hacktivism, Trépanier-Jobin

U of Toronto, Theology, Reynolds

UNC-Charlotte, Mandela-Civil Disobedience

McGill, Underdevelopment, Norman

U of W Ontario, Law‒Civil Disobedience, D’Arcy

U of BC, Family Mediation, Kruk

U-Mass, Amherst, Civil Disobedience, Vinthagen

Rutgers U, Civil Disobedience, Tyson

Cornell, Gandhian Civil Disobedience, Ghosh

American U, Environment, Conca

Carleton U, Civil Disobedience, Bartholomew

Harvard U, Public Policy, Zimmerman

Santa Clara (Jesuit) U, Solidarity, Riley

Tufts, Ethnology, Matsunaga

U of Toronto, Civil Disobedience, Neville

NYU, Black Protest, Roberts

U of Victoria, State Regimes, Carpenter




2016.1–6 Report on Apartheid-Nonviolence 101


Cyclical Data-driven Wheel of Life Nonviolence–Civil Disobedience Feedback Flow Apps ‒ Methods Phases in a Chart and Three Enlarged or Expanded Tables


            What “apps” work as nonviolence – civil disobedience methods?  What data-driven flow dynamics narrative phases differ from evidence-driven “cause-&-effect” stages?   A Mary Joyce-led – collective Google-Plus project online, below, seemed to indicate that at least 40% of Gene-Sharp-cited methods can be applied through apps; including trade union & eco-feminism issues.  If advancing forceful, coercive, conflictive, & powerful nonkilling means–ends, data-driven nonviolence may override discretionary war casualty costs that foreshadow wasted militarized opportunities.  Explicit nonkilling & ecofeminist data flow skillset checklists stretch, for instance, from a nonviolent War Resisters International–WRI to green consensus group action manuals or handbook charts & checklists — for direct action groups like a Greenpeace, Ruckus, Livermore, or Nonviolence International.  An aging primal warlord-oriented mythos or theory-driven scientific paradigm, overlaid with a Euro-centric corporate-nationalist warlord evidence-driven scientific paradigm, has determined consensual human power by whose vote counts.  All the same, a scientific data-driven planetary paradigm may re-value myth & evidence-driven paradigms; As growing affinity groups from familial units to banking, corporate, cooperative, trade union, property owner, & militarized elite, (e.g., “soviet”), groups determine whose digital vote counts.  Narrow app-web data searches result in writers like a Gandhi & Thoreau.[1]  Wider app searches trend toward mobility options, from bike-sharing, car-sharing, city car-share, car2go; self-driving cars, ride-hailing-sharing, & transit mapping-schedules, to ride-hailing-sharing.[2]  A futurist renewable, scientific, cytogenetic-driven & interplanetary-resonant, so-called quantum zero-point energy consciousness paradigm may drive e-voting groups to better articulate civil disobedience for restorative earth justice, unifying cosmic thought & wellbeing.[3]

            Narrating data-driven nonviolence can be symbolized in feedback flow, expressed as civil disobedience phases in a chart & three tables, below, which reflexively-demonstrate: 1) Co-creative nonviolent cultural negotiations to deflect‒unmask injustice with envisioned goals, strategy, & objectives mobilized by participants; (Reveal why attacked, how oppressed).  2) Prefigurative nonviolent direct action to articulate nonviolence, without pre-judging “enemies” engaged over voiced goals; (Reinterpret truthful narratives).  3) Nonviolent restorative (earth) justice to engage truth-force through preparative training to meet community needs; (Truth-seeking justice).  4) War tax resistance ― planet-building security ― to overcome structural “poverty” violence, plus locally-based police & peace teams, despite war budgets, covert bribery, &/or surveillance intimidation, consistent with parallel consensual economics; (Co-creating consonant equity).  And, 5) Cooperative cultural insight to promote participatory democratic local & global organization, as planet-building feedback to de-escalate reactive violence; (Demilitarizing apriori battle-ready targets).  Such a Wheel of Life strengthens inertia-momentum toward institutionalizing intergenerational civil disobedience viability, as in Flow Chart 5 below:


Flow Chart 5: Data-driven Wheel of Life Nonviolence–Civil Disobedience Feedback Phases


            Given contextual contrasts ― and data dynamics flow on what some call planet Earth, as a militarized 1% exploit the other 99% — oppressively-reflecting undercut human needs in education, employment, health-medical opportunities, & housing shortages — there may be no civil society without civil disobedience.  Data-driven nonviolence – civil disobedience may provide a continuously-effective grasp of mutually-beneficial & -responsible force, conflict, power, & coercion.  What might be scientifically-called cyclical data-driven nonviolence training paradigm phases have been culturally-absorbing linear evidence-driven stages for some time, as will be more fully-articulated in Tables 10, 11, & 12 below.  Early planetary expressions of such a cyclical (“quantum”) paradigm emerged with practical Gandhian eco-feminist insights, through a Satish Kumar, via Schumacher College in England already by 1969.[4]   

            So, as amplified or delineated by enlarging color-coded data flow chart dynamics above into three tables below, graphically — these cyclical phases can be gamed, mapped, & mobilized via App–Url & Goals‒Results — as five Cyclical Wheel of Life Phases in three Nonviolence Civil Disobedience Feedback Tables.  Briefly, nonviolence–civil disobedience phases act to: 1) Organize & negotiate to unmask injustice; 2) Take prefigurative direct civil disobedience action; 3) Restore (earth) justice bioregional rule of law; 4) Pay for war (tax) resistance, simplifying a wholistic (parallel) economy; and 5) Inspire cooperative, cultural planet-building feedback renewal.[5]  Manageable download examples, by phase, follow from Google (1), iTunes (2), and other app–web sources (3) to mobilize these five phases ‒ methods.[6]  Such a cyclical, data-driven “apps” paradigm for nonviolence & ecofeminism, viewed through a civil disobedience lens prism, overshadows linear-positivist writers like a Gene Sharp, as follows, in Table 10:


Table 10:  Apps ‒ Phases ‒ Methods for Cyclical Data-driven Wheel of Life Nonviolence Civil Disobedience Feedback, Phases 1-5




 Phase 1            Phase 2                 Phase 3                 Phase 4                Phase 6


     Phase 1             Phase 2              Phase 3                Phase 4                 Phase 5


Phase 1


  Phase 1  Nonviolent Cultural Negotiations that may deflect‒unmask expected violence with relevant, overall vision, strategy, & objectives inspired by co-creative participants; Unmask injustice, organize & negotiate justice apps, as to, e.g., transportation, sexual assault, & crisis-mapping.  Focalizing educational human needs.  (Why attacked, how oppressed). 

 Phase 2


Phase 2   Prefigurative Nonviolent Direct Action that may re-narrate nonviolent stories with appropriate tactics without blaming “enemies” — working to resolve conflict, consistent with vision; Prefigurative direct civil disobedience action, as to, e.g., resolving arrests or kettling (street jail) with Swarthmore dBase-like apps (including “social” media).  Focalizing employment human needs.  (Reinterpret truthful narratives).

  Phase 3

Phase 3  Nonviolent Restorative (Earth) Justice that may empower truth-force to restore (earth) justice with bioregionally-appropriate rule of law; Restorative (earth) justice community rule to employ, e.g., witness, green mapping, Cradle Count, & Brazilian Bolsa apps.  Focalizing health-medical human needs.  (Truth-seeking justice).

 Phase 4


Phase 4  War Tax Resistance (Parallel Greening of Planet) that may overcome structural violence, despite covert bribery &/or intimidation, with direct action consistent with dialogue consensus over discipline & principles; War (tax) resistance for parallel economy to engage, e.g., censorship, anonymity, BDS, & tax-currency apps.  Focalizing housing human needs.  (Co-creating inter-group & e-media equity).  And

Phase 6

 Phase 5  Nonviolent Cultural Insight, (e.g., Cordoba & Kwakiutl cultural samples), that may synergize proactive, participatory democratic local & global organization, without excessive violence side-effects.  Cooperative planet-building mobilization feedback for, e.g., Crabgrass, Firechat, Storymaker, & anti-SOPA-like apps.  Focalizing local–global human rights criteria.  (Devalue-ing apriori battle-ready dogmas).



Phase 1:  Unmask injustice, organize & negotiate focalizing educational needs apps ‒ phases ‒ methods Nonviolent Cultural Negotiations that deflect‒unmask expected violence with relevant, overall vision, strategy, & objectives inspired by co-creative participants; Unmask injustice, organize & negotiate justice apps, as to, e.g., transportation, sexual assault, & crisis-mapping.  Focalizing educational human needs.  (Reveal why attacked, how oppressed).




Phase 1



Phase 1:


Goals‒Results Focalizing Educational Needs apps ‒ phases ‒ methods


Activism–Training Guides

Affinity Groups


Buttons & Posters





Source Writers




Mothers of the Disappeared; Ruckus Society

Ruckus–NVDA; PublicEye

Progressive Resources; Progressive Austin

Servicio Paz y Justicia–SERPAJ – Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Ecuador, Uruguay

Campus Guides; Nonviolence International; ProtestNet; San Francisco, Santa Barbara

Aal, Bill; Beck, Sanders; Ewall, Mike; Fithian, Lisa; Mohandas Gandhi Writings Online; Lakey, George; Morris, Catherine; Schutt, Randy


Assault Witness,  Sexual[7]


Circle of Six Fight Back

Fight Back-


Repel, counter-act sexual attacks, SOS with GPS, SMS, GPRS, and/or “Facebook” parallels; ROAR e-safety jewelry; Here for You, PocketJustice, Kitestring, We Care (MIL)




Assault Witness, Police–state









Witness (2)


OCCUPY-inspired Witness

Spectrum of witness options

ACLU-inspired counter-apps to over-policing

Live video resist–overcome group sites streaming

ACLU‒NYC Stop & Frisk Watch (1) (2)

Witness livestream emergencies









Global Disaster Alert & Coordination System

Ushahidi witness upgrade

Crowd-sourced, Rescue–EMS mapping (Okolloh) Gaming, routing, pollution, traffic flow, geo-fencing





Blogs, BLIND (1)(2)

BLIND (Anonymous chat)






CopWatch security





MP3s, Wiki

MP3 streaming; Google Sidewiki



OccupyWatch security



PeriscopeTV security


Planet Indy (1)(2)

Democracy Now INDY News





 SMS-Facebook fundraising



Open Whisper encrypted messaging
















Augment Sight


Best Route

Bike Maps

Bike-share Map


Car Minder

Carticipate, Lyft

Honk – Find


PlugShare (1)(2)

Smart bike

Wildlife  Corridors



Video traffic interface


Mapping, BikeTrak, Bike Trackers

Bike route mapping app options

Find Bike-share locations

Crash avoidance pinging

Maintenance tracking


Car, parking meter locator

Gas pricing

Find hybrid-electric hook-up power plug

Varies powered assist according to speed need

Wildlife Corridor safe-tracking traffic, e.g., Banff to  Yellowstone; Linkage Mapper







GoPro, Tivo, Weeknees

Passcode-protect GoPro–Phone; Observe local, state laws over anonymous upload to Vimeo, Youtube[10]








Planetary whistle-blowing platform (Wikileaks)

Gene Sharp witness compilation





Wi-Fi Networking


DDS-Occupying Websites

DailyMotion videos

Occupy website via DDS; eFax blitz, Gamers’ marches, parades, demonstrations online


Earbud translator

Facetime,  Finder

Pilot translation app

Facetime; WiFi finder interface


Global Voices

Bridge-blogging translated posts





IRC chat

IRC chat room brainstorming


Skype Translator

Skype Translator (messaging – direct translation)


Tethering PDA+

PdaNet+ internet access via Android phone


YouTube, Vimeo

YouTube, Vimeo video uploads





Phase 2: Take Prefigurative Direct Civil Disobedience Action focalizing Employment Needs that may re-narrate nonviolent stories with appropriate tactics without blaming “enemies” — working to resolve conflict, consistent with vision; Prefigurative direct civil disobedience action, as to, e.g., resolving arrests or kettling (street jail) with Swarthmore dBase-like apps; including “social” media.  Focalizing employment human needs.  (Reinterpret truthful narratives). 



 Phase 2

Phase 2:


Goals‒Results focalizing Employment Needs apps ‒ phases ‒ methods

























Arrested (1)(2)

Crowdsourced surveillance


Go HD (2)      









WhatsApp (2)



Send custom SMS message to preset numbers

Drones, balloon mapping of arrest & deployment trends, patterns

Irani crowdsourced choreography vs state police[11]

 “Snap, Shoot, Speak” to take photos, film a video, post a tweet

Coordinate protests or protesters by GPS, through Facebook, Twitter-like feeds

Crowdsourced choreography to avoid police kettling or kittling (street jail) barricades[12]

DoNotPay (Browder), Arraignment, Loans (1)(2)(3)

Webcam imitating surveillance to anticipate, prevent, & defer abusive state arrests

Messaging without subscription overage[13]





Direct Digital Action

Bike WiFi   




Cultural jamming



Flash Mob (1)(2)                          


Facebook-Twitter Handles


Hashtag Trending


Livestream Lights



Peace “Box”[14]



Phone location (1)


Posting Over

Projecting Laser

QR codes


Scenario Builder

Shadow-banning Awareness- Building  









Wipe phone (1)

Bike-Sharing, Bike-Track, Bike-Tracker, Skylock, SmartBike

Maptivist monitoring of corporate & government censorship

Safer communication platform

Fake news disrupting radio, online broadcasting

Disrobing pic posts, skits, video, youtube online

Impersonating dictator audio-video messages

Color-synchronized groups, car ribbons; IOS designs; Mashable mapping

FrontlineSMS traffic texting

Grouping “friending” – vigils, via Facebook Tumblr, Twitter-like feeds

Global Nonviolent Action Database ‒ Swarthmore College (colocating 199 evidence-driven methods)

Crowdsource (#) hashtags — Re-Posting Twitter Tweet hashtags to push search “hit” levels

Screen “Candles” ‒ Cell phone display screen

Mocking or highlighting witty civic, social, or political message; Occupy-style pranks, skits

Off-the-Record Messaging

Hard & soft tool-ware, (Eben Moglen, Columbia U), for privacy, censorship, hostile regimes, & emergency networking; Load like flash drives

Filter site mapping

Crime mapping; Police-military app overviews

Renaming maps, streets, webs, & networks online

Imaging people, symbols, videos at night

Quick Response–QR check-in codes to recruit, mobilize, and track support & participation levels

People Power game of civil resistance

Sidesteps covert online censorship; e.g., tweets censured over drones or Palestinian tweets–U-Tubes blocked inside Israel–Palestine or U.S.[15]

Scans mobile radio data for Stingray-like technology – as to insecure networks, like fake base stations (IMSI catchers) & user tracking SS7 attacks; Rf Hamburg Chaos Club “fixes”

Drone, balloon map streaming

Disruptive blogging, messaging

Monitor U.S. election fraud

Frontload-biased keyword search engine rankings

Android or Apple remote-wipe, if hacked or stolen[16]



First Aid



Red Cross


Lifesaving first responder apps

Prioritizing treatment available

Emergency crisis response options

Trilogy Emergency Relief Application–SMS


Judo Techniques[17]



Phase 3: Restore (Earth) Justice Community Rule focalizing Health-Medical Needs that empower truth-force to restore (earth) justice with bioregional rule of law; Restorative (earth) justice community rule to employ, e.g., witness, green mapping, Cradle Count, & Brazilian Bolsa apps.  Focalizing health-medical human needs.  (Truth-seeking justice).





 Phase 3


Phase 3:


Goals‒Results focalizing Health-Medical Needs apps ‒ phases ‒ methods








Gender Parity



Equitable pay; Aggregating Storify-like social media



Income Basics

Bolsa Familia


BRICS (1)(3) 


Switch Banks



Brazilian annual food, gas, income, & medical-educational coverage card (Blocked by Temer Coup)

Brazil, Russia, India, China, & South Africa‒BRICS challenge to NATO-Russian militarization

Change banking-saving accounts toward local co-op ‒ credit union accounts










Green driving

“Green City”


Green Maps (3)



Green Travel  


Indigenous organizing

PhotoMap (1)  

Sustainable shopping

Sustainable driving

Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil, exchanging garbage collection ‘time’ currency for transit ride costs

Green NYC; Farmers’ Markets (1)(2)(3)

Apptivist, Locavore (1)(2), 3rd Whale, New Zealand

Green transit, shopping

Sapelli, GeoKey

First VoicesFirst Nations (Canada) (1)(2)(3) Tablet (1)


Instagram photo-mapping



Pollution, Air

Measuring, reporting environmental crimes



Power Mapping (2)

Distinguishing “board of director” power map leverage options; Publish map to online app




Palestine, PeaceNow mobilization     



Safe Food-Home



Code-Green, Dirty Dozen (1)(2)(3), Eco-Market, Home-Health, Remote Sensor

Hunger relief optimization patterning




iRecycle (1)(2) ways & means




Clayoquot Sound (Greenpeace direct action tap-roots, Green Action Foundation



Water Quality


World without Oil (Wars)


Measure–report ocean, drinking-water conditions; Oil contamination including EPA app postings

Gaming fossil-free world, renewable planetary energy political economics








Black Cross    

Medical Activist First Aid



CradleCount (1)

Predict baby due date; Infant & natal care essentials, with or without online internet access (Nwokolo)[18]


Medical Access

Genetic Testing


DIY, 23andme (2), 23andme a-go-go, & Genetic Alliance disease predisposition coalitions



Genetic PCR(1)-Zolldata

Cytogenetic genome mapping techniques



Medical Advocacy

LegalZoom, Eulogies, Funerals, PatientsLikeMe, Versaclaim coalition-building



Medical Conditions

Medical Costs

Medical Wireless

MyChart (1)(2)

CDC, Cedars-Sinai, Johns Hopkins, Mayo Clinic, Medline symptoms diagnosis–prognosis

Healthcare Bluebook, OpsCost, PokitDok

GrandCare, Lorex, Teladoc, VueZone telemedicine

Medical record telemedicine




National Comprehensive Cancer Network



PatientsLikeMe (1)(2)

Peer group support; Sjogrens SS-L U of IL



Radioactivity Pocket Geiger

SmartPhone geiger counter; Greenpeace LED ionic rad-burden light-mapping[19]



Ranking Physicians …

Medical provider competence search




International SOS emergency options










Genetic Testing Registry



Health Hotlines (1)(2)

Pubmed, PubMed Mobile PubMed Unbound (1)

REMM-Radiation (1)(2)

U.S National Library of Medicine

ToxNet PDA



Integrate disease prediction epigenetics with competitive pharmacy pricing

Monitor–Report radioactive hazards

Emergency help network contact

Track, access, compare peer reviewed journal articles

Track, monitor, report radioactive events

Track, access, compare peer reviewed books, theses, articles, monographs

Track, monitor, report chemical hazards

Optimize emergency medical services



Restorative Justice             

PeaceWomen App, Feminist Girl & Women Apps (2)




Phase 4: Pay for Peace; War (Tax) Resistance with Parallel Global Economy focalizing Housing Needs (Parallel Greening of Planet) that overcomes structural violence, despite covert bribery &/or intimidation, with direct action consistent with dialogue consensus over discipline & principles; War (tax) resistance for parallel economy to engage, e.g., censorship, anonymity, BDS, & tax-currency apps.  Focalizing housing human needs.  (Co-creating group & e-media equity). 


 Phase 4



   Phase 4:


Goals‒Results focalizing Housing Needs apps ‒ phases ‒ methods






BDS Buycott 

Phone bar-code or QR-code scanner app to confirm or reject – boycott–sale provenance



App, Training, Wellstone Action[20]



Occupy-style “assembly” organizing





Anonymity Apps

Blocking, filtering, and reversing robo, unwanted, & surveillance cell-smart phone functions




Currency Parallels

Funding opposition groups

hOurWorld (1)

BitCoin, PayPal; Google Wallet


Time-share barter currency


WIR Bank, Switzerland[21]

Parallel, PermaBank Currency


Taxes (501c3, 990)

Filing U.S. IRS 990 for 501c3 nonprofit activist status (1)(2)(3); Phone tax payment resistance example against U.S.‒SE Asian Wars[22]











EarthNow (1)

NASA-informed climate crisis criteria

iNakhba app (1)(2)

Palestine land recovery



U.S. land recovery

Sea-level rise (1)(2)

Climate crisis mapping, mobilization

Squatter Handbooks


Brissol (Australia), Trapese (England), Sprout (Grand Rapids MI), Archiv Amsterdam (Planetary).  Up to a third of 21st Century world population being housing squatters who seek to embody guaranteed income goals for all


Hong Kong” uprising example enabler(1)

UN-HABITAT Library(1)

Housing, homelessness, landlessness

Water mWASH

Monitor, report water pollution & wellness





Phase 5: Inspire Cooperative, Intercultural, Human Rights focalizing Planet-Building Feedback Insight, (e.g., Cordoba & Kwakiutl cultures), that synergize proactive, participatory democratic local & global organization, without excessive violence side-effects.  Cooperative planet-building feedback for, e.g., Crabgrass, Firechat, Storymaker, & anti-SOPA-like apps.  Focalizing local–global human rights criteria.  (Devalue-ing apriori dogmas). 



 Phase 6



   Phase 5:    



Goals‒Results focalizing Planet-Building Feedback apps ‒ phases ‒ methods








diversityDNA (2)


Singapore App         

Power mapping cultural diversity resources, trainers, training, & board of directors leverage

Cytogenetics investigation request (Singapore)




Global eVoting


Estonia & Austria e-voting via dedicated mobile ID SIM cards & PIN codes–certificates[23]




Meshing –Bluetooth - Web[24]





Commotion   Crowdmap

FireChat “Offline”







Secure messaging

Wikis, task files, file repositories, & decision-making tools

“Facebook” with anti-hacking security

 Crowd-sourced map blending with mesh networking


“Hong Kong” occupy-protest (via Open Garden)[25]

P2P “wired” mesh network routing past ISO/OSI level 3

Meshing phone-by-phone

Moderate intercultural video conferencing

“Facebook” with anti-hacking narrative-building

Security, anonymity, & resilience networking[26]

Net Phone

AI iPhone app




Boycott SOPA, Cell monitoring





Amnesty International iPhone app; (vs Apple & Google Intifada apps “disabled” during wars)

Enabling land phones to work like cell phones


Israeli-Palestinian human rights twitter app

Halting state or transcorporate spy-censorship

 RedPhone (1), Signal (2)

Proxy “global commons” server software

Global whistleblower network with data storage & disposal











World Order-oriented  Big Data[27]












Global Pulse 

Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average‒ARIMA crime‒crisis pattern forecasting[28]

UN AudioNow (8 languages) (1)(2); UN Charter (1)

Vienna‒NYCJavakartacrowd-sourced sensors, data exhaust, data sharing








Smurf Suite





Inter-Embassy networking – Dutch-English, -Swedish, & -Finnish embassy message sharing


Reconnaissance by, e.g., “Israeli” Pioneer‒Reaper ISR over Iraq; From CIA-NRO-NSA variants of Ryan Firebee in “Vietnam” SE Asian wars

NRO-NSA‒SIGINT cellphone control app

Planetary peacekeeping overview

NRO-NSA chat & email mining app

NRO-NSA hack, attack, & control cellphone app

Gaming to regulate intrapersonal violence (PTSD)

U.S. Navy product, thus not secure, as to, e.g., Vieques, Puerto Rico, activist eviction of Navy bombers; U.S. police routinely-criminalize Tor servers with drug dealing allegations

Given digital flow dynamics, data-driven nonviolence outcomes accentuate access to food, water, first aid, & interactive community organization basics, coupled with optimizing mobility skills-training.  Sharing hermeneutical, data-driven decision-making & mutually-beneficial ideas prioritizes human needs & rights means – ends criteria.  Mesh or web apps may also compress aggregators, e.g., for: sleep, banking, befriending, dating, language, music, photo, shopping, payments, weather, workouts, GPS, foraging, investments, location, maintenance, pollution, prognostics, reminders, surveillance, translations, diagnostics, anatomy, astronomy, entertainment, anti-smoking, audiology, cardiology, ophthalmology, productivity, physiology, bike-sharing, car-sharing, book readers, map directions, self-improvement, school texts, touch-surgery, digital dissection, appointment minders, bike–door locks, trading & currency, humanitarian emergencies, pay-by-phone, ride-hailing-sharing, building & construction, menu & ordering, & transit-travel routing-scheduling….[31]  Diplomatically, locally‒globally, data-driven insight happens as if increasingly-more disposed to appraising planet- over nation-building.

            Downloads beyond ‘Droid GooglePlay or Apple iTunes may bring up AppBrain, AppsZoom, GetJar, Samsung, SlideMe, Amazon, Mobango, Opera, & as phone-mobile app sources.  Comparatively world-order-leaning Google-‘Droid, though, not only started out of Intel-trained Susan Wojcicki’s garage.  She also became the Youtube, DoubleClick, & Google Books founding CEO, while channeling as much as 80% of Google-Alphabet’s long-term marketing income, (according to Forbes Journal).  Besides co-raising her five children, she’s co-piloted mobile ‘Droid tech for over half of all Google traffic.  In the long run, planning for the future, Linda Avey, Susan, & Anne founded 23andme, as run by Anne ― Anne being Susan’s younger sister, who married & divorced Google-co-founder Sergei Brin ― to sequence cytogenetic family genomes for medical foresight, publicized by, e.g., Oprah Winfrey in “roots” dialogue.  Even though the U.S. FDA “outlawed” 23andme, shortly-before Walgreens & CVS could market it in a simplified form ‒ 23andme transmutes U.S. health care “outside” the U.S.  In any event, Susan Wojcicki also saw fit to bestow on Tzipi Hotovely, Israeli Deputy Foreign Minister‒Knesset, Google’s “comprehensive review mechanism” to censure allegedly-violent (BDS?) Intifada-related online videos.[32]  Outside of StartPage Search, apps “beyond” Apple-Google could reflect more future nonviolence or anti-dependency needs & outcomes options.

            Change, however digitized ― within a legal-cultural violence-to-nonviolence means-ends spectrum for resolving conflict ― suggests World order-oriented “data” still leans more toward conservative “natural” moral law or norms; Anti-dependency, toward revising “natural” positivist law; and Nonviolence, toward contextual contract law.  Fundamentalist natural law world order advocates disenfranchise voters to justify slavery or segregation.  Revisionist “natural” law, positivist-oriented devotees safeguard private property & justify “free market” bargaining contract rules.  In turn, nonviolent-oriented advocates prefer to innovate or renovate contextual contractual rules that increase or liberate bargaining freedom, all so as to curb marketplace “anomalies” like opportunism, wrong facts, & caste or apartheid insults ― with nonkilling.  Hierarchally-arranged World order “data” tends toward anarchic, corporativized militarization; Anti-dependency approaches, toward less-hierarchically-rigid, less-centralized militarization; and Nonviolent approaches, toward consensual consciousness-raising & problem-solving, with less reified anarchy.  Civil disobedience “data” may thus anticipate “breaking” of law(s), so as to invest in “higher” planetarily-conscientious contextual laws that inspire & reaffirm divine force or essential power.  Planet-building nonviolence logistically takes grass-roots-level time, effort, & practical teamwork experience, a step at a time, much like building green, zero-step, universally-designed, fire-resistant structures ― outlining goals & enacting planning with strategic feedback.  Nonviolence‒Nonkilling academies arose within a Harvard University-associated Albert Einstein (Nonviolence) Institute–AEI, (via Gene Sharp), & a University of Hawai’i Center for Global Nonkilling-CGNK; (via Glenn Paige), for evidence-driven, dyadic‒interpersonal, and class- & culturally-tuned methodologies.



Data-Driven Paradigm Eclipsing Evidence-Driven (“Sharp” Pre-Digital) “Nonviolence”


            Positivist, evidence-driven nonviolence training, by definition, started with alleged cause-&-effect linear stages — rather than data-driven flow phases — transforming cooperative & non-cooperative planning alternatives.  In a word, linearly-apt nonviolence & civil disobedience trainers viewed change in stages, not as cyclical phases.  Rooted in an evidence-driven scientific paradigm — long-term nonviolence trainers, such as a George Lakey, have experienced nonviolent civil disobedience training stages firsthand; Then again, such would also envision “chambered nautilus” & accelerated “break-away from patriarchal rigidity” phases.  Data-driven training may underscore planetary flow dynamics, such as embracing affected opportunity & shadow costs within the inner child — to meet human needs, to encourage consciousness-raising, and to enable reconciliation before confrontation.[33]  Retrospectively, if nonviolence ‒ civil disobedience training stages do mobilize as cyclical, data-driven phases, as expressed below — then the staged framework of Gene Sharp’s 199 methods may generally, more-or-less, be abridged into five stages, re-phrased thereby; Upgrading from “stage” to phase, by placing oft-cited Evidence-Driven 198 or 199 Methods of Nonviolent Action — from many websites — into a Table 11: Data-Driven Paradigm Apps ‒ Methods ‒ Phases Eclipsing “Gene Sharp”-patterned Evidence-Driven (Pre-Digital) “Nonviolence” ‒ as re-phrased below:


Table 11: Data-Driven Paradigm Apps ‒ Methods ‒ Phases Eclipsing “Gene Sharp” Re-patterned as to Evidence-Driven (Pre-Digital) “Nonviolence”




 Phase 1

Stage 1 perceived as Phase 1

Articulated as nation & planet-building-based educational human needs ― Formal Statements  1 Public Speeches; 2 Opposition or Support Letters; 3 Declarations by Groups; 4 Signed Public Statements; 5 Indictment & Intention Communications with Wider Audience  6 Group or Mass Petitions; 7 Slogans, Caricatures, & Symbols; 8 Banners, Posters Displays; 9 Leaflets, Pamphlets, & Books; 10 Newspapers & Journals; 11 Records, Radio, & Television; 12 Skywriting & Earthwriting  Group Representations 13 Deputations; 14 Mock Awards;15 Group Lobbying; 16 Picketing; 17 Mock Elections; 18 Displays of Flags & Symbolic Colors  Symbolic Public Acts 19 Wearing of Symbols; 20 Prayer & Worship; 21 Delivering Symbolic Objects;



 Phase 2


Stage 2 perceived as Phase 2

Articulated as nation & planet-building-based employment human needs 22 Protest Disrobings; 23 Destruction of Own Property; 24 Symbolic Lights; 25 Displays of Portraits; 26 Paint as Protest; 27 New Signs & Names; 28 Symbolic Sounds; 29 Symbolic Reclamations; 30 Rude Gestures  Pressures on Individuals  31 “Haunting” Officials; 32 Taunting Officials; 33 Fraternization; 34 Vigils; 35 Humorous Skits & Pranks  Drama & Music  36 Plays & Music Performance; 37 Singing; 38 Marches  Processions  39 Parades; 40 Religious Processions; 41 Pilgrimages; 42 Motorcades  Honoring the Dead  43 Political Mourning; 44 Mock Funerals; 45 Demonstrative Funerals; 46 Homage at Burial Places  Public Assemblies  47 Assemblies of Protest or Support; 48 Protest Meetings; 49 Camouflaged Meetings of Protest; 50 Teach-ins; Withdrawal & Renunciation  51 Walk-outs; 52 Silence; 53 Renouncing Honors; 54 Turning One’s Back; Ostracism of Persons 56 Selective Social Boycott; 57 Lysistratic No-Sex; 58 Excommunication; 59 Interdict; Noncooperation 60 Social & Sports Suspensions; 61 Boycott of Social Affairs; 62 Student Strike; 63 Social Disobedience; 64 Leaving Social Institutions; # 199 Bicycle Lock Lockdowns (Introduced by, e.g., Earthfirst and Greenpeace, Added by Swarthmore dBase to “Sharp” List);



 Phase 3


Stage 3 perceived as Phase 3

Articulated as nation & planet-building based Health-Medical human needs ― Withdrawal from Social System 65 Stay-at-Home; 66 Total Personal Noncooperation; Peacebuilding in Everyday Life 67 “Flight” of Workers; 68 Sanctuary; 69 Collective Disappearance; 70 Protest Emigration (Hijrat); Actions by Consumers 71 Consumers’ Boycott; 72 Boycotted Consumer Goods; 73 Policy of Austerity; 74 Rent Withholding; Action by Workers & Producers  75 Refusal to Rent; 76 National Consumers’ Boycott; 77 International Consumers’ Boycott; 78 Workmen’s Boycott; 79 Producers’ Boycott; 80 Suppliers’ & Handlers’ Boycott; Action by Middlemen   81 Traders’ Boycott; Action by Owners & Management  82 Refusal to Let or Sell Property; 83 Lockout; 84 Refusal of Industrial Assistance; 85 Merchants’ “General Strike;” Financial Resource Holder Actions 86 Withdrawal of Bank Deposits; 87 Fees, Dues, Assessments Refusal; 88 Refusal to Pay Debts or Interest;89 Severance of Funds & Credit; 90 Revenue Refusal; 91 Refusal of a Government (Military) Money; Action by Governments 92 Domestic Embargo; 93 Blacklisting of Traders; 94 International Sellers’ Embargo; 95 International Buyers’ Embargo; 96 International Trade Embargo; Symbolic Strikes 97 Protest Strike; 98 Quickie Walkout (Lightning Strike); Agricultural Strikes 99 Peasant Strike; 100 Farm Workers’ Strike; Strikes by Special Groups 101 Refusal of Impressed Labor; 102 Prisoners’ Strike; 103 Craft Strike; 104 Professional Strike; 105 Establishment Strike; Ordinary Industrial Strikes 106 Industry Strike; 107 Sympathetic Strike

Restricted Strikes 108 Detailed Strike; 109 Bumper Strike; 110 Slowdown Strike; 111 Working-to-Rule Strike; Peace Commerce (Peace Companies) 112 Reporting “Sick” (Sick-in) ; 113 Strike by Resignation; 114 Limited Strike; 115 Selective Strike; Multi-Industry Strikes 116 Generalized Strike; 117 General Strike; Strikes & Economic Closures 118 Hartal; 119 Economic Shutdown; Rejection of Authority 120 Allegiance Denial, Withdrawal; 121 Refusal of Public Support; 122 Resistance Speech-Literature; Citizens’ Noncooperation 123 Boycott of Legislative Bodies; 124 Elections Boycott; 125 Gov’t Employee Boycotts; 126 Gov’t Depts, Agencies Boycotts; 127 Withdrawal from Gov’t Educational Institutions; 128 Government-Group Boycotts; 129 Boycott of Enforcement Agent; 130 Sign & Placemark Removal; 131 Boycotting Appointed Official; 132 Institutional Refusal to Disband; 133 Reluctant & Slow Compliance; Citizens’ Alternatives to Obedience 134 Non-obedience / Absent-Boss; 135 Popular Nonobedience; 136 Disguised Disobedience; 137 Group Refusal to Disperse; 138 Sitdown; 139 Conscription-Deportation Refusal; 140 Hiding, Escape, & Fake IDs; 141 Refusal of “Illegitimate” Laws; 142 Selective Refusal of Assistance; Action by Gov’t Personnel 143 Blocking Chains of Command; 144 Stalling & Obstruction; 145 Administrative Noncooperation; 146 Judicial Noncooperation; 147 Sabotage by Enforcement; 148 Mutiny; Domestic Governmental Action 149 Quasi-legal Evasions & Delay; 150 Governmental Units Refusal; 151 Changes in Diplomatic Postures; International Governmental Action 152 Diplomatic Delay & Cancellation; 153 Refusal of Diplomatic Recognition; 154 Diplomatic Severance; 155 Int’l Groups Boycott; 156 International Bodies Boycott; Peacebuilding in Everyday Life representations  152 Delay & Cancellation of Diplomatic Events;153 Withholding of Diplomatic Recognition; 154 Severance of Diplomatic Relations; 155 Withdrawal from International Organizations; 156 Refusal of Membership in International Bodies; 157 International Group Expulsions; Interventions, Psychological Intervention 158 Self-exposure to the Elements; 159 Fast  a) Pressure b) Hunger Strike c) Satyagrahi; 160 Reverse Trial; 161 Nonviolent Harassment; Physical Intervention 162 Sit-in; 163 Stand-in; 164 Ride-in; 165 Wade-in; 166 Mill-in; 167 Pray-in; 168 Nonviolent Raids; 169 Nonviolent Air Raids; 170 Nonviolent Invasion; 171 Nonviolent Interjection; 172 Nonviolent Obstruction; 173 Nonviolent Occupation; 174 Establishing New Social Patterns  Social Intervention 175 Overloading of Facilities; 176 Stall-in; 177 Speak-in; 178 Guerrilla Theater; 179 Alternative Social Institutions;


Phase 4


Stage 4 perceived as Phase 4


Articulated as nation & planet-building-based Housing human needs ― 180 Alternative Communication; Economic Intervention 181 Reverse Strike; 182 Stay-in Strike; 183 Nonviolent Land Seizure; 184 Defiance of Blockades; 185 Political Counterfeiting; 186 Preclusive Purchasing; Peace Commerce (Peace Companies) 187 Asset Seizure; 188 Dumping; 189 Selective Patronage; 190 Alternative Markets; 191 Alternative Transportation; 192 Alternative Economic Institutions Political Intervention; 193 Overloading Administrations; 194 Disclosing Secret Agent IDs;


 Phase 6



Stage 5 perceived as Phase 5

Articulated as nation & planet-building-based Human rights criteria; (as opposed to often internationally-ignored Israeli apartheid “human rights” occupation abuse deployed against Palestinian struggle 195 Seeking Imprisonment; 196 Refusing “Neutral” Laws; 197 Work-on without Collaboration; 198 Dual Sovereignty & Government


For method # 199, Locking-down with bike-locks, please see Stage 2.


A Mary Joyce-led – collective online spreadsheet work project exemplified one attempt to blend nonviolence methods in both data & evidence-drive paradigms, that is, to upgrade the evidence-driven 198 or 199 methods influenced by Gene Sharp, comparatively — with data-driven apps listed via Google-Plus, side-by-side.  The former, older, linear, evidence-driven paradigm conveying positivist-oriented methodology had also favored national-oriented stages, over the latter’s planetary-building-oriented dynamics.  Of course, some events like weeding a garden or “hitting” the streets need to be done physically.  What follows below – condensed, integrated, & synthesized ― summarizes the Joyce collective Google-Plus project, which also by-passes, by omission ...., those “Sharp” methods not practicable in current apps.:[34]  Articulated in a Table 12: Combining Linear Evidence-driven Paradigm with Cyclical Data-driven Paradigm Apps ‒ Phases ‒ Methods for Nonviolence – Civil Disobedience, below:



Table 12: Combining Linear Evidence-driven Paradigm with Cyclical Data-driven Paradigm Apps ‒ Phases ‒ Methods for Nonviolence – Civil Disobedience


Linear Pre-Digital Evidence-Driven (Sharp numbered) Nation-Building Protest

Cyclical Data-Driven Planet-Building App-Web-Protest


Formal Statements

 1 Public Speeches; 2 Opposition or Support Letters;

 3 Declarations by Groups; 4 Signed Public Statements;

 5 Indictment & Intention

Communications with Wider Audience

 6 Group or Mass Petitions; 7 Slogans, Caricatures, & Symbols;

 8 Banners, Posters Displays; 9 Leaflets, Pamphlets, & Books;

 10 Newspapers & Journals; 11 Records, Radio, & Television;

 12 Skywriting & Earthwriting       

Group Representations

 13 Deputations; 14 Mock Awards;15 Group Lobbying;

 16 Picketing; 17 Mock Elections; 18 Displays of Flags &

 Symbolic Colors

Symbolic Public Acts              

 19 Wearing of Symbols; 20 Prayer & Worship; 21 Delivering 

 Symbolic Objects; 22 Protest Disrobings; 23 Destruction of

 Own Property; 24 Symbolic Lights; 25 Displays of Portraits;

 26 Paint as Protest; 27 New Signs & Names; 28 Symbolic

 Sounds; 29 Symbolic Reclamations; 30 Rude Gestures


199 Bicycle U-Lock around limbs fixed to protest object



Pressures on Individuals

 31 “Haunting” Officials; 32 Taunting Officials;

 33 Fraternization; 34 Vigils; 35 Humorous Skits & Pranks





Drama & Music                     

 36 Plays & Music Performance; 37 Singing; 38 Marches


 39 Parades; 40 Religious Processions; 41 Pilgrimages

 42 Motorcades






Honoring the Dead

 43 Political Mourning; 44 Mock Funerals; 45 Demonstrative

 Funerals; 46 Homage at Burial Places


Public Assemblies

 47 Assemblies of Protest or Support; 48 Protest Meetings

 49 Camouflaged Meetings of Protest; 50 Teach-ins

Withdrawal & Renunciation

 51 Walk-outs; 52 Silence; 53 Renouncing Honors;

 54 Turning One’s Back

Ostracism of Persons             

 56 Selective Social Boycott; 57 Lysistratic No-Sex;

 58 Excommunication; 59 Interdict



 60 Social & Sports Suspensions; 61 Boycott of Social Affairs;

 62 Student Strike; 63 Social Disobedience; 64 Leaving Social


Withdrawal from Social System

 65 Stay-at-Home; 66 Total Personal Noncooperation

Peacebuilding in Everyday Life

 67 “Flight” of Workers; 68 Sanctuary; 69 Collective

 Disappearance; 70 Protest Emigration (Hijrat)

Actions by Consumers            

 71 Consumers’ Boycott; 72 Boycotted Consumer Goods;

 73 Policy of Austerity; 74 Rent Withholding            

. . . .

Symbolic Strikes

 97 Protest Strike; 98 Quickie Walkout (Lightning Strike)

Agricultural Strikes

 99 Peasant Strike; 100 Farm Workers’ Strike

Strikes by Special Groups

 101 Refusal of Impressed Labor; 102 Prisoners’ Strike;

 103 Craft Strike; 104 Professional Strike;

 105 Establishment Strike

. . . .

Social Intervention                 

 175 Overloading of Facilities; 176 Stall-in; 177 Speak-in;

 178 Guerrilla Theater; 179 Alternative Social Institutions        

 180 Alternative Communication

Economic Intervention

 181 Reverse Strike; 182 Stay-in Strike; 183 Nonviolent Land

 Seizure; 184 Defiance of Blockades; 185 Political

 Counterfeiting; 186 Preclusive Purchasing

Peace Commerce (Peace Companies)

 187 Asset Seizure; 188 Dumping; 189 Selective Patronage;

 190 Alternative Markets; 191 Alternative Transportation;

 192 Alternative Economic Institutions

Political Intervention

 193 Overloading Administrations; 194 Disclosing Secret Agent

 IDs; 195 Seeking Imprisonment; 196 Refusing “Neutral”

 Laws; 197 Work-on without Collaboration; 198 Dual

 Sovereignty & Government


Reach more people



Near zero costs / blogs, pdfs, websites

Audio Streaming, iTunes

BitTorent, eMule, MP3s,

SMS-Facebook voting




Flash mobs

Occupying website, Sidewiki, Crowdsourcing

Image re blogs, websites, facebook, twitter pages-profiles

Digital flag colors displayed remotely; Prayer – worship; Disrobing pic, video, youtube online; Screen “Candles” on Cell phone display screen; Projecting night laser images of people, symbols, videos; Rename street names on online maps










Apps to sound like dictators with different message; Redesign occupation - dictatorship homepages

Simulate news events, dictators in jail videos (e.g., Yes Men)

Fake twitter handles

“Friending” via facebook, tumblr, twitter,

Online vigils via facebook, tumblr, twitter

Online skits, pranks videos

Plays, music; Uprising viral music, music videos; Singing Viral videos (YouTube, Vimeo, DailyMotion ...)

Gamers’ marches-demonstrations; Parades Gamers’ parades online









Homage online –

Protest-support assemblies; Car ribbons, color-distinguished flash mobs




Skype ‒ IRC chat

Pic as if, post ‒ email online

Block or transfer online accounts










Fake online profiles

Switch bank - credit toward local co-op – credit union accounts



 app; BitCoin use

Switch bank - credit toward local co-op – credit union accounts





Flash mobs

Posting over shamed dictators’ blogs, webpages, social networking pages

DDOS attacks

Drones, balloons overhead

Hackspace, Cryptoparties






Satellite phones to sidestep web shutdown

BitCoin, PermaBanks

Administration overload–DDOS

Disclosing identities   

OnTheMedia-OTM Project


Disruptive blogging; Trolling





            Contrasted with terms like civil-rights, -resistance, or -organization ― cognitively-inclusive terms like “civil disobedience” will further-evolve as “big” data-driven, (eclipsing evidence-driven), key or touchstone terms — As planetary data-driven hermeneutics “overrule” evidence-driven debate in nonviolence discourse.  For instance, Erica Chenoweth & Maria Stephan’s epic, evidence-driven Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict yields aptly-noble nation-state samples of less-violent conflict resolution results; Finding that nonviolence (& violence) better resolve international conflictive events in about 50% (& 25%) of the time, internationally, respectively.  But, under polarized state repression, noble intentions may be co-opted when exercizing civil disobedience, restorative justice, war tax resistance, or cultural consciousness toward planet-building — Especially where “foreign” wars by TNC-militarized nation-states “exceptionalize” or criminalize-by-protracted-war world oil-relevant zones.  Viewing such oil-relevant conflict-resolution through ― e.g., a NATO – U.S. State Department-biased ― world-order evidence-driven paradigm, as to, for instance, Cuba, Mozambique, Palestine, Vietnam, Argentina, Venezuela, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, and South Africa or Korea, (North & South), will turn-out differently than might a data-driven nonviolence or anti-dependency-oriented conflict resolution analysis of the same conflicts. 

            Other than states like an Iceland or Costa Rica, and leaders like a Cory Aquino, Hillary Clinton, Mahmoud Abbas, or Aung San Suu Kyi, and, at times, a Barack Obama — few states or state leaders have yet to even risk using words like nonviolence in public statements.  In the interim, an anti-dependency-oriented Cuba or a neutrally-oriented Costa Rica claim neither to need nor want militarized U.S. security.  Costa Rica likewise pioneered ratifying a gender parity Equal Rights Amendment in the Americas.  Both states have likewise led world-class struggle to nationalize their banking systems so as to avoid TNC exploitation, as did Costa Rica in nationalizing its banks in 1914 & 1948 and Cuba in 1960.  Atypically, worldwide, most of all, various states like a Costa Rica, have claimed to have abolished culturally-entrenched conscriptive- and omnicidally-militarized systems.[35]



[1] See, e.g.,,, along with “Gandhi on Peace,” “My Non-Violence,” Gandhi (Droid),, “On the Duty of Civil Disobedience by Thoreau, Henry David,” Android Librivox Audio Book App,;; Henry David Thoreau Quotes / Droid,; Susannah Vila, “5 Online Tools For Activists, By Activists,”;; See also  Author grateful Michael Beer & Paul Magno for three-hour brainstorming interchange on methods of nonviolence & Gene Sharp, at Nonviolence Internaitonal Nonviolence Washington, DC, office, 2016 May 16.

[2] See, e.g.,;;; p2p free long-distance phone calls), Zimride (, Turo (, Uber, RelayRides, GetAround (;; JustShareIt, Green Taxi, Transunion (Newark); Transit Map-Schedule Apps – NextBus (;; NextTime, Moovit (; Tiramisu;; TriMet (Portland OR), Google Transit – Trip Planner (;;; Transportation Networking – “CharlieCard” smartcard (Greater Boston MBTA,;; Taxi Hailing – Hailo, ZabKab, Flywheel, Taxi-Magic, and, for “Copenhagen Wheel” bicycle wheel which senses & controls algorithms, so that pedaling harder or rider discretion increases electric-powered assist.  

[3] Carl Landauer, Corporate State Ideologies (UC-Berkley Institute for International Studies, No. 54, 1983); and Marie Battiste & James Youngblood Henderson, Protecting Indigenous Knowledge and Heritage: A Global Challenge (Purich 2000), 124-52 passim, on paradigms.  

[4] Vinobā & Satish Kumar, School of Non-violence: A Handbook  (London: Housemans, MLK Fdn, 1969),  Satish Kumar originated the Schumacher College, through the journal Resurgence, latter celebrating its 50th Anniversary in late 2016;

[5] Flow Chart 5: Cyclical Wheel of Life — Nonviolence Civil Disobedience Feedback Loop Phases taken from similar Flow Chart 4: Data-Driven Wheel of Life — Nonviolence Civil Disobedience Cyclical Phases, in author’s Nonviolence 101 Manual in-process.  For related flow chart – Venn Diagram, see also  For basic relevant checklists for evaluating nonviolent civil disobedience, (beyond Sharp’s “198” Methods) such as digitally-expressive preparation-action planning methods, (for extra-parliamentary outreach); during-action planning methods; and after-action planning methods, (documentary arrest follow-through media e-activism), see also:  [WRI] Handbook for Nonviolent Campaigns (WRI, 2d ed., 2014), 142-43,; A 2009 War Resisters International-WRI Handbook for Nonviolent Campaigns;; Gender-Sensitive Active Nonviolence Training Checklist, Women Peacemakers ProgrammeWPP (2013),; and

International Seminar on Training for Nonviolent Action, Cuernavaca, Mexico, July 1977, evaluation form, various editions;;; &

[6];; Mary Joyce, ed., Digital Activism Decoded, The New Mechanics of Change (OpenSource, 2010),;; Lauri Goodling, “MOAR Digital Activism,” Kairos: Rhetoric, Technology, Pedagogy 19/3 (Summer 2015),;;; Markus Sabadello, Rationale and Design for the Peace Box; An Electronic Device for your Home or Office (Stadtschlaining/Burg, Austria: European Peace University (EPU), 2012), 60 passim;; and Brian Hocking & Jan Melissen, Diplomacy in the Digital Age (Hague: Clingendael Netherlands Institute of International Relations, 2015), 39-59 passim,

[7] Rf also Martha Langelan, Back Off!: How to Confront and Stop Sexual Harassment and Harassers (Simon & Schuster, 1993),

[8] Patrick Meier, Do “Liberation Technologies” Change the Balance of Power between Repressive States and Civil Society? (Boston: Tufts, PhD diss, 2011), 2, 5, 10, & 46;;; &; Patrick Meier,Crisis Mapping in Areas of Limited Statehood,” in Steven Livingston and Gregor Walter-Drop, eds., Bits and Atoms, Information and Communication Technology in Areas of Limited Statehood (Oxford, 2014); and “Patrick Meier: The Women of Crisis Mapping,”; “Vast majority of volunteers engaged in the Ushahidi-Haiti Crisis Map project (from January 2010) were women. The Ushahidi-Chile Crisis Map (March 2010) was entirely spearheaded by women.”  Ushahidi carried Haitian-earthquake and Tsunami-Japan-level catastrophic relief e-traffic, mapping-sequencing mobile photo-video feeds (pda, cellphone, sms, websites …).  See also;;;;;;;; Barb Dybwad, “How-To: Make Your Own Annotated Multimedia Google Map,” 2005 March 8,; and KyleMulka, “How To Overlay Custom Maps Using the Google Maps AP,”

[9] Didi Chuxing — “Honk, Honk, Commute” — formed through Xiaoju Kuaizhi Inc. with Apple, Tencent, Lenova, & Alibaba; Led by Jean Liu, CEO, using Didi Stations like “bus” stops for bike, car, & van; Much larger than Uber.  See;;; and

[10] See also, e.g.,  Youtube has been known to block critical Youtube videos of ruling Saudi regime, along with specific Palestinian content.

[11] Amie Gordon, “Young Iranians are Dodging the Country’s ‘Morality Police’ with a New App that Uses the Logo of a Bearded Man to Show the Location of Patrols on a Google Map,” 2016 Feb 13,  Google tags map locations with a bearded icon; often bypassing police if enabled through a Virtual Private Network–VPN.

[12] “Sukey - Peaceful Protest App without Any Mobile Phone Network Communications Data or Traffic Data Anonymity,” 2011 Jan 29,—protest-app-without-any-mobile-communications-data-anonymity.html; Patrick Kingsley, “Inside the anti-kettling HQ,” Guardian, 2011 Feb 2,; Cory Doctorow, “Sukey: An Anti-kettling App for Student Demonstrators in London,” 2011 Jan 28,;; & Duncan Geere, “Sukey Apps Help Protesters Avoid Police Kettles,” 2011 Jan 31,; and “Hints & Tips for Whistleblowers,”; and  Uses stimuli-response route mapping; Allows police to message demonstrators over their goals.  University College London students, (Sam Gaus & Sam Carlisle), designed Sukey to also work through current or older phones, respectively, via Twitter @sukeysms, or “Growl” SMS; PGP-Encrypted & DDOS-protected.

[13] Chikodi, “Apps for Occupiers Make Organizing, Communicating and Sharing Easier,” 2011 Nov 19,

[14] Markus Sabadello, Rationale and Design for the Peace Box; An Electronic Device for your Home or Office (Stadtschlaining/Burg, Austria: European Peace University (EPU), 2012),;;;;;

[22] See; &

[24] Bluetooth-wireless  or mesh networking — the more people in a mesh network like FireChat, the better it works — building dense networks without internet. 

[25] Peter Shadbolt, “FireChat in Hong Kong: How an App Tapped its Way into the Protests,” CNN, 2014 Oct 16,; & Alex Fitzpatrick, “Hong Kong’s Protesters Don’t Need the Internet to Chat with One Another,” 2014 Oct 1;

[26] See;;;; Peter Shadbolt, “FireChat in Hong Kong: How an App Tapped its Way into the Protests,” CNN, 2014 Oct 16,; & Alex Fitzpatrick, “Hong Kong’s Protesters Don’t Need the Internet to Chat With One Another,” 2014 Oct 1,

[27] Porter & Heppelman, “How Smart, Connected Products are Transforming Competition,” Harvard Business Review, (Nov 2014), 5-6, 9-10, 18,

[28] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Monitoring the Impact of Economic Crisis on Crime (2015), 4, 15, 30.

[29] Chan & Spousta, “Hold the Drones: Fostering the Development of Big Data Paradigms through Regulatory Frameworks,” Journal of Communication and Computer 12 (2015) 138-39; Alessandro Marcon, The Discursive Enactment of Edward Snowden (Ottawa, Ontario: MA Carleton U, 2015),; and

[30] John Karlsrud, “Peacekeeping 4.0: Harnessing the Potential of Big Data, Social Media, and Cyber Technologies,” in Kremer & Müller, ed., Cyberspace and International Relations, Theory, Prospects and Challenges (Springer, 2013), 141-160.

[31] Chris Gaylord, “The App-Driven Life: How Smartphone Apps are Changing our Lives,” 2013 January 27,; “How Apps Have Transformed Our Lives,”; iPad app; Peter Buckley, The Rough Guide to the Best iPhone & iPad Apps (Penguin, RoughGuide, 2012);;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; [First Aid];;;; “List of [19] Virtual Communities with More than 100 Million Active Users” — U.S. (9); China (6); Skype – Estonia (1), Japan (1), Canada (1); Israel (1);;;;; and See. e.g.,;;;;;;;; See also Youtube videos as to Android – Google’s Garage; Susan Wojcicki On Hosting Google in Her Garage - SMX West 2012 Keynote Intro; Thinking Big with YouTube CEO Susan Wojcicki & Computer Pioneer Ada Lovelace, ttps://; What does the Susan Wojcicki have to say about the future of YouTube ,; Youtube’s new CEO Susan Wojcicki - Full Interview Fortune MPW 23andme (2006; $1 Billion+),, 23 and Me Founders Linda Avey and Anne Wojcicki; Anne Wojcicki’s Billion Dollar Business Is Revolutionizing Healthcare; Anne Wojcicki genetic information should be broadly available - Full WIRED2014 talk; Anne Wojcicki on the FDA and Future of 23andMe,; Building a Customer-First Company Anne Wojcicki, 23andMe -- Startup Elements,; Design Your Own Baby Patent Granted,; &

Linda Avey on Open Science and 23andMe, On Google in Palestine, see Saed Bannoura, “Israel to Coordinate with Google, YouTube, To Censor [‘Violent’?] Palestinian Videos of Conflict,” 2015 Nov 27,; Saed Bannoura, “Israel Coordinate Google Censorship of Palestinian Videos of Conflict,”, 2015 Nov 30, For Global Database of Events, Language, and & (GDELT), see Adam Taylor, “What Big Data Can Tell Us About the Relationships between World Leaders,” 2014 March 24,  

[32] See. e.g.,;;;;;;;; See also Youtube videos as to Android – Google’s Garage; Susan Wojcicki On Hosting Google in Her Garage - SMX West 2012 Keynote Intro; Thinking Big with YouTube CEO Susan Wojcicki & Computer Pioneer Ada Lovelace, ttps://; What does the Susan Wojcicki have to say about the future of YouTube ,; Youtube’s new CEO Susan Wojcicki - Full Interview Fortune MPW 23andme (2006; $1 Billion+),, For 23 and Me Founders Linda Avey and Anne Wojcicki, see; Anne Wojcicki’s Billion Dollar Business Is Revolutionizing Healthcare; Anne Wojcicki genetic information should be broadly available - Full WIRED2014 talk; Anne Wojcicki on the FDA and Future of 23andMe,; Building a Customer-First Company Anne Wojcicki, 23andMe -- Startup Elements,; Design Your Own Baby Patent Granted,; & Linda Avey on Open Science and 23andMe,  For Google in Palestine, see Saed Bannoura, “Israel to Coordinate with Google, YouTube, To Censor [‘Violent’?] Palestinian Videos of Conflict,” 2015 Nov 27,; Saed Bannoura, “Israel Coordinate Google Censorship of Palestinian Videos of Conflict,”, 2015 Nov 30, For Global Database of Events, Language, and & (GDELT), see Adam Taylor, “What Big Data Can Tell Us About the Relationships between World Leaders,” 2014 March 24,  

[33] George Lakey, “How ‘Strategy for a Living Revolution’ Came to Life,” 2016 May 4,

[34] Except for cases where Mary Joyce, et al., online spreadsheet assigned post # 199 data-driven methods with the overlapping method numbers.  See Mary Joyce, Jillian York, Patrick Meier, Daryn Cambridge, Althea Middleton-Detzner, Lee Smithey, Mark Dilley, Matt Cordeiro, Dustin Slaughter, Oleg Kozlovsky, Sumeet Anand, Gregory Asmolov, Michael Rotakhin, & Samuel Carlisle, eds., Civil Resistance 2.0 _ 198 Nonviolent Methods Upgraded,;;;; and Mary Joyce, Activism Success: A Concept Explication (Seattle WA: U of Washington, MA Thesis, 2014),; Spreadsheet at; See also Mary Joyce, ed., Digital Activism Decoded, The New Mechanics of Change (OpenSource, 2010),;; Lauri Goodling, “MOAR Digital Activism,” Kairos: Rhetoric, Technology, Pedagogy 19/3 (Summer 2015),; ttp://; and

[35] See, e.g., Cory Aquino’s writings,; “Remarks of Hillary Rodham Clinton, First Lady of the United States, 125th Birth Anniversary Commemoration of Mahatma Gandhi,” Concert Hall (Kennedy Center) 14 July  1995), International Journal of Nonviolence, Vol 3., Paul Hubers, ed., (1996), 23 ff;  Reprinted with permission, Srimati Kamala, ed., The Gandhi Message, 29/1-2 (1995); Aung San Suu Kyi, 1991 Nobel Peace Prize Lecture,; Barack Obama, “A Just and Lasting Peace,” 2009 Nobel Peace Prize Lecture,; &   See also Erica Chenoweth & Maria Stephan, Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict (New York, NY: Columbia U, 2011),; 12 “hits” only for “civil disobedience” in Google Book version of Chenoweth & Stephan online; two “hits” only for “civil disobedience” in their 2008 International Security Journal article summarizing their book; and one “hit” only for “civil disobedience” in their Online Methodological Appendix Accompanying “Why Civil Resistance Works.”  See, e.g., (12 data “hits” only),; (2 data “hits” only), Maria Stephan & Erica Chenoweth, “Why Civil Resistance Works, The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict,” International Security, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Summer 2008), pp. 7–44,; and (1 data “hit” only),;; &



2015.10-12 Report on Apartheid-Nonviolence 101


_ Paradigmatic Nonviolence, Anti-Dependency, & World Order Future Approaches

_ Nonviolence–Civil Disobedience Approaches in Iraq

_ Maturing World Population in International Conflict Resolution

_ Globally-effective Civil Disobedience Actions Chart, Ranked by Mass Numbers Arrested

_ 2015 Nonviolence – Civil Disobedience Texts On-Line

_ Paradigmatic Nonviolence, Anti-Dependency, & World Order Future Approaches

So could international relations dialogue overcome human needs & wellness shortcomings, by way of nonviolence & nonkilling?  A potential nonviolence – conflict resolution approach or outlook paradigm, outdoing world order & anti-dependency views, might reflect reality like the Venn Diagram below: Venn Diagram 2: Paradigm Approaches, Along Spectrum from Less to More Omnicidal Violence); Starting from Rainbow Paradigm …  (Source cites below):


Singular figures of planetary import like a John Meynard Keynes (economist) or William McDonough (architect) have mixed world order & nonviolence; a Florence Kelley, nonviolence & anti-dependency.  Data-driven divestment-disclosure campaigns toward zero-point energy, enhanced by planning of equitable futures & subsuming of near death experiences, may not likely happen without global civil disobedience suppressed by massive regime arrests.  To that end, Carl Jung presumed that a kundalini chakra-driven collective subconscious impelled 1930s Gandhian liberation (Purna Swaraj) scale-level campaigns; invigorating souls or chthonic anima.  Civil disobedience may unmask oppression & redress injustice — break state laws in favor of what might be called planetary laws — so as to force mutually-responsible consciousness-raising, empowered by recognizing & overcoming injustice in bad laws. Yet U.S. laws lack provisions for acknowledging “electronic civil disobedience” or validating online protest as “free” speech.  If disrespecting civil disobedience, even environmentalists like a John Muir, (exiled as an 1860’s War draft dodger, first to Canada, north of Lake Huron, & then to California), endorsed indigenous “removal” to promote national parks.  Contrariwise, iconic Henry David Thoreau & Aldo Leopold resisted war taxes.  “Austerity” policy-making, denoting a Cartesian-Newtonian world order, bleeds-dry “green” planetary energy paradigms. 

See Jason Quintal, Occupy Wall Street: An “Imaginative” Exploration of the September, 2011 Protests in New York City (Ottawa: MA thesis, 2015), 86, passim;; Erik Fritsvold, “Under the Law: Legal Consciousness and Radical Environmental Activism,” 34/4 Law & Social Inquiry (Fall 2009), 809;; The Fourth Data-Intensive Scientific Discovery Paradigm (Microsoft, 2009),; Sonu Shamdasani, ed., The Psychology of Kundalini Yoga, Notes of the Seminar given in 1932 by C.G. Jung (Princeton U, 1932, 1999), xvii, 22; Appendix 1, 78; & Appendix 3, 101;; Dorina Pãtrunsu, “The Human Value of Civil Disobedience in Democratic Societies,” in Mihaela Pop, ed., Values of the Human Person: Contemporary Challenges, Romanian Philosophical Studies, VIII (Washington, DC: Council for Research in Values & Philosophy, 2014), 161;; Molly Sauter, Distributed Denial of Service Actions and the Challenge of Civil Disobedience on the Internet (Cambridge: Harvard U, MS thesis, 2013), 19;; Teresa Carroll, When Traditional Advocacy Goes High-Tech (Rochester Institute of Technology: MA Thesis, 2003);; & Carolyn Merchant, “Shades of Darkness: Race and Environmental History,” 8/3 Environmental History (July 2003), 381-84, 388, & 386;; See, e.g., Thoreau, Civil Disobedience (1849).

To wit, Keynes’ most influential international relations work, The Economic Consequences of the Peace, (1919), critiqued oppressive post-WWI Versailles treaty pre-conditions, as inciting 1940s (WW II) wars.  Keynes’ 1940s economic theories led England’s fiscal battles to withstand European fascism & nazism; throughout what amounted to his conscientious objector service years.  He also chaired 1944 World Bank (& IMF) negotiations for the Bretton Woods system.  However the U.S. & Soviet Union sidelined his U.N. proposals for a world Bancor currency, in a globally-regulated banking system, with an International Single Currency Clearing Union, and for reasonable federal lending before so-called austerity measures, to support viable business over long-cycle losses.  In short, Keynesian-style economics contend that high unemployment follows inadequate aggregate sales demand or profit margins, & so requires state intervention to moderate “boom & bust” business cycles; latter underscored by Joseph Schumpeter & Joseph Stiglitz.  Time magazine (1999) observed that: “His radical idea that governments should spend money … [that they had failed to equitably tax for] … saved capitalism.”  In contradistinction, Florence Kelley translated Marx & Engels primary anti-dependency work over both men & women in-depth, i.e., the Condition of the Working Class in England (1845) into English, but Engels refused to pay her for it as promised as a woman; She also tried to enable one of Marx’s daughters, Eleanor, after she had married a Caribbean black man, to avoid suicide; when her father, Karl, more-or-less disowned her for her own interracial marriage.  Kelley could not draw Marx & Engels into significant environmental dialogue either.  A Quaker lawyer, better known as the first U.S. factory health inspector (OSHA …) — where more factory workers have died “on-the-line” than soldiers in “foreign” wars — Kelley thus also organized coalitions for health care, consumer rights, & a 40-hour work week, while abolishing child labor, nation-wide.


See;;;; &; plus related referrences below.  Keynes also co-led a Bloomsbury writers group including Virginia Woolf, E.M. Forster, & Lytton Strachey.  Most comprehensive library Author ever encountered concerning Keynes met during work a Quaker carpenter, so as to pay for a PhD degree, in the home of John & Miriam Holsen.  Darrell & Mildred Randall, cited previously as to struggle against apartheid in Southern Africa, also knew the Holsens, since John served as a conscientious objector in Angola during the Korean War.  John led World Bank Country Studies programs, (Ambassador status), before being recalled from retirement to lead efforts to rescue Russia after the Berlin Wall “fell” — Miriam & that Quaker carpenter’s wife then taught advanced math in an Afro-American DC ghetto, Anacostia, high school, producing scholarship-funded, academically-competitive, & university-bound students.


_ Nonviolence–Civil Disobedience Approaches in Iraq 


During a 1920 Revolution, an Iraqi Women’s Awakening Club affected water, literacy, & suffrage concerns.  Water concerns, like Ilisu Dam, one of twenty-two Southeastern Turkey-Anatolia planned dams, still menace the Tigris River watershed, Iraq’s core water supply.  Iraqi ecological groups, such as the Save the Tigris & Marshes Campaign, address such dams and high cancer & birth defect cluster rates near military bases.  Iraq’s Organization of Women’s Freedom has mediated divorce, inheritance, polygamy, & child marriage issues; Sheltering women facing gender violence, especially bad near Hawija & Karbala military bases, where teens & children encounter major accumulative cancer, polio, & brain atrophy trends.  Under occupation contexts, a so-called Jaafari Law, March 2014, however, reversed women’s rights in divorce, inheritance, polygamy, & child marriage.  A 2005 Parliamentary Order 8750 radically-froze General Federation of Trade Unions of Iraq bank accounts.  By 2010 conflictive Iraqi nonviolence momentum had enabled pro-democracy protests in Baghdad’s Tahrir Square, & resonated in 2011 “Arab Spring” Tunisia, Libya, Yemen, & Egypt Cairo – Alexandria waves of protest.


See Nadje Al-Ali, et al., What Kind of Liberation? Women and the Occupation of Iraq (UC-Berkeley, 2010), 22-23;;;;; “OWFI Report: Hawijah in Crisis and the Legacy of US Bases,”;; Ali Issa, Against All Odds: Voices of Popular Struggle in Iraq (NYC, Washington, DC: War Resisters League & Tadween Publishing, 2015), 2-6, 11, & 23-24; and Against All Odds: Voices of Popular Struggle in Iraq, Organizing & Study Guide (NYC, Washington, DC: War Resisters League & Tadween Publishing, 2015),


British & U.S. occupation promised liberation & independence, but aimed to replace military elites & marginalize basic Iraqi human needs; In effect offsetting-paralyzing ethnic & sectarian strife, to manipulate oil cost–access.  Triggered to control oil, currency, & military elites, effected “transitional” U.S.-focused administrative laws overrode state power to tax or govern such issues as water & minorities, like Turkmen, Yazidis, & Christians, (Chaldean or Assyrian).  The top U.S. commander, Paul Bremer, prioritized appointing 25 exiles to replace Iraqi military elites, so as to dismiss a half-million career soldiers & all past imposed or voluntary Ba’ath party members, including most Iraqi teachers.  By modifying a so-called 1948 Portsmouth Treaty, Iraqi civil disobedience campaigns did briefly-impede British militarization.  League of Nations 1920 Mandates effectively-justified a 1919 Treaty of Versailles that favored England, (& humiliated Germany), using an Iraqi civil service copied from India to control Middle Eastern oil.  A British-French Sykes-Picot Agreement partitioned Middle-East borders, projected by air force hegemony over pliant monarchies, after British soldiers took Basra & Baghdad by 1917. 


See Judith Yaphe, “Until They Leave: Liberation, Occupation, and Insurgency in Iraq,” in Baram, Rohde, & Zeidel, ed., Iraq between Occupations: Perspectives from 1920 to the Present (Palgrave MacMillan 2010), 240-42, 244-46, 248-51, & 256-58; and Annika Müller, Nonviolence in the Context of the Palestinian Resistance against the Israeli Occupation (Marburg, Philipps U, MA, 2008), 7 passim,; as well as Müller, Al-Behadili, et al., Gewaltfrei gegen Besatzung, Irak – Afghanistan – Palästina, Beiträge zur BSV-Jahrestagung 2009 (BSV-HuD: 28, 2009); or 


_ Maturing World Population in International Conflict Resolution


Caregiving in aging demographic contexts may be the fastest growing group of occupations in states like the U.S., potentially through something like a “care grid” ensuring, e.g., water, internet, & electricity access.  Various models for organizing caregiving communities range from “Carepod” Collaborative Networks, like Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities–NORC, or a Beacon Hill Village in Boston & Capitol Hill Village in Washington, DC — to caregiving time bank (Fureai Kippu) credits in Japan, for reimbursing those who help disabled neighbors.  Regional initiatives may launch through imported-Euro examples, like a Co-operative Home Care Associates (CHCA) of New York’s South Bronx Cooperatives ― likely the largest worker-owned U.S. cooperative.  As in many other nations, “Social Security” advocacy networks could cap payroll taxes, to finance caregiving from capital interest on investments & stock dividends or real estate rental income, as well as capital gains.  Apps include a “Betty” handheld mobile–web portal, designed by Robert Nascenzi to systematize medications & social service networking.  


See, e.g.,;; Ai-jen Poo & Ariane Conrad, The Age of Dignity: Preparing for the Elder Boom in a Changing America (NY: New, 2015), 4, 132-37, 143-46, 157, & 215 n5;;;;;;; Virginia Reno & Job Levers, Fixing Social Security: Adequate Benefits, Adequate Financing (Washington, DC: National Academy of Social Insurance, 2009),;; & Joan Gage, “New Technology Helps With Eldercare -- It’s Not Just Robots,” Rolling Crone blog, November 7, 1013,


On February 15, 2003, about 30 million people in about 800 cities worldwide gathered as one, to mobilize planet “earth” to resist oil wars in, e.g., Iraq — prefiguring, designating a maturing world population conscience & amassing the world’s largest such demonstration to-date.  By 2011 November 6-7, about 1,200 people (of 12,000) encircled the U.S. White House, to court arrest over tar sand pipelines.  About 40 Sierra Club members, (including an executive director & board president), also did civil disobedience then for the first time in Sierra’s 120-year history, despite bylaws separating Sierra from civil disobedience-proficient groups like Greenpeace.  Yet such global anti-oil war protests must also contest yellowcake, (densely-dried uranium), mined from Oglala Lakota & Saskatchewan Native AmeriCanadian mines‒wells — shipped through Cameco Refineries in Port Hope, Ontario; Cameco being the world’s single-largest uranium producer, and, thus, the single most dangerous long-term polluter of the Oglala Aquifer, underlying much of the world’s corn & grain potential.  Post-militarization disclosure will likely hinge on divestment from oil-driven wars, nonviolently-foreshadowing “green” civil disobedience consciousness-raising.  Redistributing the cost of even a few dementia-violence-inclined sports stadium franchises could also substantially-reallocate “1%” of the world’s wealth into comprehensive university tuition, if academically-qualified.  Although even presupposing an interplanetary future with ensuing trade & diplomacy would reframe a greater planetary paradigm shift than ascertaining the Americas or a heliocentric star system.  Relative quantum (interplanetary) consciousness might well concern revised views of planet “earth” ethnography, with better understanding of closer, greater star clusters, (like M87 galaxy, Virgo constellation), & intergalactic nuclei, (beyond the Milky Way).

See “We are Many: Global Feb. 15, 2003, Protests didn’t Stop Iraq War, But May have Changed the World,”; Editors, “Keystone XL Victory is a Reminder of Why We Cover Movements,” 2015 Nov 6,; Coral Davenport, “Citing Climate Change, Obama Rejects Construction of Keystone XL Oil Pipeline,” 2015 Nov 6,; Bryan Farrell, “In Historic Turn, Sierra Club Gets Arrested for the Climate,” 2013 February 13,; “Turning to Civil Disobedience: An Interview with Dave Karpf,”; John Broder, “Keystone XL Protesters Seized at White House,” 2013 February 13,; Will Wooten, “Don’t Mess with Texas’ Tar Sands Blockade,” 2012 August 15,; Bryan Farrell, “Entirely Surrounded: Protesters [many in orange-colored vests] Encircle White House, Close in on Tar Sands Industry,” 2011 Nov 7,; and “McKibben on Tar Sands Action: “The Largest Collective Act of Civil Disobedience in the History of the Climate Movement,” 2011 Aug 19,;; Zach Ruiter, “Canada,” in Ray Acheson, ed., Costs, Risks, and Myths of Nuclear Power NGO World-wide Study on the Implications of the Catastrophe at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (Reaching Critical Will, Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, 2011), 54,; Governments in Quebec, British Columbia, & Nova Scotia banned or halted uranium mining early-on.  For dementia-side of football, rugby, such as the Concussion Legacy Foundation, see; Christopher Nowinski, Head Games: Football’s Concussion Crisis from the NFL to Youth Leagues (Drummond 2006); Leslie Sibenera, et al, “Alzheimer’s Disease Prevalence, Costs, and Prevention for Military Personnel and Veterans,” Alzheimer’s & Dementia 10 (2014), 105-110; Ann McKee et al., “Profile of Self-Reported Problems with Executive Functioning in College and Professional Football Players,” 30/14 Journal of Neurotrauma (2013 Jul 15), 1299–1304; and Ann McKee et al., “Long-term Consequences of Repetitive Brain Trauma: Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy,” 3/10 Suppl 2, PM&R Journal (2011 Oct) 460-67.  See also Michael Gintowt, “Exopsychology,” 3/2 Exopolitics Journal (July 2009), 166-70,; and Nikolai Kardashev, “Inevitability and the Possible Structures of Supercivilizations,” (Moscow Space Research Institute), 503; in Michael Papagiannis, ed., The Search for Extraterrestrial Life: Recent Developments; Proceedings of the Symposium, Boston University, June 18-21, 1984 (Dordrecht: Reidel, A86-38126 17-88, 1985), 497-504, &

In the 1980s, groups like Greenpeace & the Shoshone Indians motivated, for instance, Harvard-associated leaders like Lisa Peattie, Lewis Vitale, & Daniel Ellsberg, and mobilized John Mack, his family partner, Sally, & all three sons — to do civil disobedience against the Nevada “Bomb” Site, near Area-51 — so as to “liberate” their spiritual well-being.  Harvard’s Lester Grinspoon & Margaret Brenman-Gibson, (latter married to William Gibson, cyber innovator), Ann & Carl Sagan, & a 77-year-old Lawrence Scott, (latter, veteran anti-Bomb activist since 1957), also courted arrest in 115 degree heat.  As a first-generation U.S. Jew, patterned by their living for two years in Japan, Sally advocated using the Nuremberg (Nazi Holocaust) Defense legal strategy for their nonviolent civil disobedience case.  Future planning might include schooling of children for human needs & rights equity–sharing, whatever levels; such as the Macks’ ensuing redirection of “Harvard” dialogue to allow even alleged-interplanetary narratives.  By extension, one might also conceptualize “Nuremberg” civil disobedience strategies to heal psychic numbing to overcome all weapons of mass destruction — “verily”-escalated, so as to put “Greenpeace” into, e.g., CIA, NRO, & NSA offices; and interposition peace teams, (& if extant, grass-roots-oriented “remote viewing”) into: the conversion of covert arms & drug business budgets, reinvestment of drug company profits into holistic medical insurance, and redistribution of “1%” covert, off-shore tax loopholes & classified budgets — into meeting all basic embryonic human needs, including nonviolent defense & demilitarization initiatives.


See Cathy Cevoli, “Putting It on the Line in Nevada,” Nuclear Times (July–August 1986), 36–37;;;;; John Mack, “Taking Action: The Higher Law of the Nuclear Age,”;; Linda Brink, et al., Women in Medicine, Videotaped Profiles and Guide for Classroom Use (Boston: Harvard Medical School, 1978),; Sally Mack, “A Family Says No to Violence: Personal Empowerment through Nonviolent Civil Disobedience”; John Mack, “Inventing a Psychology of our Relationship to the Earth;” & John Mack, “Toward a Psychology for our Time;” as well as Mack, J. E. “Action and Academia in the Nuclear Age,” 89/3 Harvard Magazine (Jan.-Feb., 1987), 25-31; in Sylvia Staub & Paula Green, eds., Psychology and Social Responsibility: Facing Global Challenges (NYU, 1992), 237 ff., 291, 293, 299-300, 303, & 304n2, 399 ff; and See John Mack, Passport to the Cosmos: Human Transformation and Alien Encounters (NY: Crown, 1999).  It is noteworthy that Sally Mack’s article is the only article in Staub & Green’s work to use and so explore words or terms like nonviolence & civil disobedience.  Edgar Mitchell adds that “ETs” (rather than Swiss, U.S., or Russian diplomacy) have prevented humans from annihilating themselves through omnicidal wars; as in, e.g., Andre Mitchell, “Andre Mitchell, “Aliens Averted US-Russia Nuclear War, Apollo Astronaut Edgar Mitchell Claims,” 2015 August 18,, and Matthew Reichbach, “Astronaut from NM says Aliens Stopped Nuclear Wars,” 2015 August 18,  A Nevada protester & a U.S. Representative, Pat Schroeder (D – Colorado), observed that Congressional bill # HR3442 cutting & halting nuclear testing followed their mass arrests.


NASA & military R & D groups also prompt future paradigmatic trends, contrasted with quantum or mutually-supportive “Zero Point”–ZP renewable (non-fossil, non-nuclear) fuel wind, water, & solar energy options.  However, rather than public ZP access or interplanetary overtures, world order futures approaches pilot highly-“classified” funding of works like that of NSA’s Edwin May-led militarily-indemnified remote viewing “intel” projects — Latter spun-off from Stanford Research Institute–SRI’s Russell Targ & Hal Puthoff, or those like the University of Tucson, AZ, or UC–Durham Rhine Research Centre’s Stephan Schwartz.  World order-oriented “futures” pre-select diminishing world population and evolving cytogenetics of disease, e-trade, & communication factor levels; Where consciousness accrues through accentuation of qi (Chinese) & nadi or prana (Indian) lines of force, as it were.  Schwartz, nevertheless, also acknowledges that the most consequential nonviolence track records derive from consensually-funded & organized groups, highlighting Greenpeace & the Quakers (or Society of Friends), who altogether number less than, e.g., 0.0008% of U.S. population; But such small groups have started historic civil rights, nuclear freeze, penal reform, public education, women’s suffrage, slavery abolition, & environmental security planetary campaigns.  Schwartz, in effect, obliquely-advocates what Mohandas Gandhi called satyagraha–“essence” in his last interview before his assassination:  “The essence of who we were … made the British choose to leave India.”  And, so, co-fostered liberation struggle across the so-called Third World.

See WWF, 100% Renewable Energy Report (Gland, Switzerland: WWF International, 2011),;;; California version Mark Jacobson, “A Roadmap for Repowering California for All Purposes with Wind, Water, and Sunlight,” 73/14 Energy (2014 August), 875–89;;; Paul McCarthy, Politicking and Paradigm Shifting: James E. McDonald and the UFO Case Study (Manoa: University of Hawaii, PhD, 1975),; Also available in microfiche format; along with Leslie Kean, UFOs: Generals, Pilots, and Government Officials Go on the Record (Random-Harmony, 2010),,%20Manuals%20and%20Published%20Papers/UFOs%20-%20Generals,%20Pilots%20And%20Governmant%20Officials%20Go%20On%20Record%20-%20Leslie%20Kean.pdf.  For alleged remote viewing, see Renee Scheltema, Something Unknown is Doing We Don’t Know What (Lexington, KY: Create Space, 2012), 58-59, 79, 90, 185, 189-91, & 301; Edwin May, ed., Anomalous Cognition: Remote Viewing Research and Theory (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2014;;;;;; Stephan Schwartz, “Trends That Will Affect Your Future. . . The Beingness Doctrine,” Explore 4/1 (Jan-Feb 2008, 15-16; & Schwartz, The 8 Laws {sic} of Change: How to Be an Agent of Personal and Social Transformation (Park Street, 2015).  University of Tucson, AZ, hosts a Laboratory for Advances in Consciousness & Health (LACH) —funded by the US government through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Centre for Frontier Medicine in Biofield Science (CFMBS) research unit; e.g.,  Schwartz trended research as a Navy oceanographer and remote viewing in marine archaeology, such as for Bahamas, Cleopatra, California, Marc Antony, & Pharos Lighthouse ruins & ship wrecks.

In the case of William McDonough, writers like Rachel Carson, (Silent Spring 1962), convinced him to work for Greenpeace, originally, where he led a chemistry branch & allied nonviolent civil disobedience action team, which — after factory & firefighting spills devastated Rhine River wildlife over a hundred mile area — chained themselves atop Basel, Switzerland, Ciba-Geigy smokestacks for two days.  The Greenpeace team next met Ciba-Geigy’s director, Anton Schaerli, who responded to their appeal to fund an environmental bio-chemical “enforcement” group, with an “encouragement” agency – which McDonough headed worldwide.  Sequential McDonough architectural contracts encouraged consequent “biophilia” designs like the Herman Miller Hudsonville Michigan-based furniture factories, interfacing workplace & outdoors, so as to enhance quality & retention rates.  Biologist Stephen Jay Gould analogously-described such “biophilia” architecture as form following function — reshaping genes into organic results, blending recycled-upcycled redundancy, upstream, to advance evolutionarily-sustainable consciousness, downstream; e.g., organically-growing buildings or furniture.  Designed around a tree-lined interior as if day-lit “streets” — Herman Miller’s skylights & windows light-up halls, stations, & rail or truck docks.  Herman Miller designs blend indigenous landscape & species, cycling storm & waste water through wetlands, local rivers, & Lake Michigan.  Incorporating Herman Miller “biophilia” designs, Ford Company’s Detroit River Rouge plant next turned room walls & ceilings themselves into ducts to cool & heat ergonomically — for its world headquarters with 200 million ft sq. of “green” roofing & for its satellite plants.  Correspondingly, McDonough built global warming consciousness into the architectural character of an American University School of International Service–AU-SIS center in Washington DC; paralleling a global Green Schools Alliance prototype, Sidwell Friends (Quaker) School.  Nike also merged recyclable-upcyclable “biophilia” rubber into its products.


See William McDonough & Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make (Melcher, 2002), 10, 11, 37, 75, 163-64, 181, & 185-86; G=Jerry Yudelson, Green Building A to Z, Understanding the Language of Green Building (New Society, 2007),; Sarah Ruth van Gelder, “How Do You Love All the Children?”; Michael Purcell, “Building the Green Dream: The School of International Service at American University,” Journal of Green Building 6/4 (Fall 2011), 26-36,;;; Adam Bremer, …, Stormwater Management

Challenges and Opportunities. A Site Evaluation within the SW Ecodistrict (Washington, DC: American University Stormwater Policy & Design Project Team, 2013),; “Herman Miller, Inc. History,”; and Deborah Lee, A Feminist Study of Men’s and Women’s Experiences of Workplace Bullying and Sexual Harassment (U of Warwick, PhD dissertation, 1998), or  McDonough credits Friedhelm Korte for inspiration in fundamental ecological chemistry insights.  AU-SIS fundraising stemming, in good measure, from the AU-SIS professors, Darrell & Mildred Randall, founders of nursing, nutrition, human needs, & family planning initiatives, along with the AU-SIS Peace & Conflict Resolution Program in Washington DC; As well as “family” of the Author.  See also John Lewis, “Mining the Sky: Resources of Asteroids,” in Hasol, et al., Innovative Energy Strategies for CO2 Stabilization (Aspen 1998), 107; & 


_ Globally-effective Civil Disobedience Actions Chart, Ranked by Mass Numbers Arrested




Ferguson, Missouri, arrest warrants over racialized U.S. Supreme Court rulings dating from 1896.



Barcelona protesters arrested over housing & “austerity” issues.



Keystone XL oil pipeline protesters arrested encircling U.S. White House.



New York City “Occupy Wall Street” Brooklyn Bridge protesters arrested.



Toronto G20 hegemony protesters arrested.



Washington DC World Bank-IMF hegemony protesters arrested.



Faslane Scotland Trident (planet killer) submarine protesters arrested.



New York City Republican National Convention protesters & cyclists arrested.



Anti-West Canada “Clayoquot” clear-cutting protesters arrested for blockading.



First Palestinian Intifada protester’s homes “arrested” at any given time.



Cruise Missiles (Greenham Commons Women) arrests annually, against NATO.



Cruise Missiles (Greenham Commons Women) arrests annually, against NATO.



Cruise Missiles (Greenham Commons Women) arrests annually, against NATO.



Cruise Missiles (Greenham Commons Women) arrests annually, against NATO.



Diablo Canyon “Abalone” protesters arrested around nuclear power plant site.



Japanese protesters against Japan getting the Bomb, via U.S. bases; Some sent to Green Island.



Seabrook “Clamshell” protesters arrested around nuclear plant site.



Anti-apartheid South Africans arrested; 575 killed along with Steve Biko.



Anti-U.S.–Vietnam war protesters arrested blockading Capitol Grounds and area freeways.



Seabrook “Clamshell” protesters arrested around nuclear plant site.



Canadian “October Crisis” protesters of martial law arrested.



German Ruhr affinity group protesters arrested around nuclear plant site.



“Flower Power” Pentagon protesters arrested; (Daisy-stemming gun barrels).



U-CA Berkeley students arrested over U.S. SE-Asian wars.



Birmingham AL civil rights protesters arrested, locally-nationally.



South Vietnam Buddhists protest U.S. occupation of Vietnam; Many killed.



War resisters protesters arrested, included burning of U.S. military draft cards.



Racial desegregation lunch counter sit-in protesters arrested.



Gandhian Salt Marchers (recorded out of millions of protesters) arrested.


Sources include in-process Nonviolence 101 Manual, by Author &; See also , e.g., Nathan Robinson, “Shocking Finding From the DOJ’s Ferguson Report that Nobody has Noticed,” 2015 March 3,; and Ellis & Hicken, “One Year Later: Ferguson is still Pumping-out Arrest Warrants,” @CNNMoney, 2015 August 6, “outstanding arrest warrants as of the end of last year [2014], equivalent to around 75% of the town's population.” See also ‘Disobedience 2014’: Mass Protest Calls for an End to Austerity in Spain,”;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; &

_ Globally-effective Civil Disobedience Actions, Ranked by Mass Numbers Arrested; 


2015 ACLU, Chicago (NATO) ;

2015 Allen-Perkins, Resistencia Palestina;

2015 Church, Teaching Peace (PhD);

2015 CNV, Nonviolent Organizing Toolkit;

2015 FOR, Coming to Ferguson;

2015 MNIPL–GreenFaith Divestment;

2015 Quintal, Occupy Wall Street (MA); and

2015 Qumsiyeh, Activist Manual

For Venn Diagram Sources Sites, Please See: Hermeneutical or contextual paradigm approaches relevant in nonviolence may be closer to current molar-hologram quantum physics than historic probability or relativity physics theory.  The latter relied more on measuring irreversible causes & effects of events as allegedly-empirical, observable facts, (i.e., closer to the world order or anti-dependency approaches); See Arthur Eddington, The Philosophy of Science (NYC: Macmillan, 1939), 28-30, 89-91, & 208-223.  Along a continuum predisposed toward neutrality or nonviolence, via Indian satyagraha experience, e.g., Mohandas Gandhi, Mahendra Kumar, & J.C. Kumarrappa chose to compare nonviolence with world order & anti‑dependency counterpoints;  See Kumar, Violence and Nonviolence in International Relations (New Delhi: Thomson [India], Ltd., 1975), 40-101 & 198-233.  For police – peace team insights, through Charles Alphin, Sr., who trained 50,000 U.S. police officers in nonviolent methods; see Alphin, “Kingian Nonviolence as an Alternative to Terrorist & Anti-Terrorist Killing and War,”; );;;; &; Alphin, Jehnsen, & LaFayette, The Law Enforcement Workbook (Galena, OH: Institute for Human Rights & Responsibilities, 1996; Mary Hanna, “A [Lansing MI] Peace Team in Action,” 2013 Sept 5,; and Alphin & LaFayette, “Kingian Nonviolence Leadership Training,” in Glenn Paige & Joám Evans Pim, ed., Global Nonkilling Leadership (Honolulu, HI, 2007),  Author grateful to David Jehnsen for July 2015 email identifying relevant police nonviolent peace team training publications and for his observation that the Rockford, IL Police Department Command Rank Leadership starting using such in 2015; see, e.g., “Rockford Illinois Chief of Police Chet Epperson,”  Jehnsen also edited & published works like a Community Mobilization Skills for Law Enforcement manual.  Representing about 80% of the planet’s population, so-called Third World theorists tend to stress an anti-imperialist or anti-dependency approach.  For international relations paradigm approaches, overall, such as positivist, constructivist & structuralist viewpoints, see Sidney Tarrow, New Transnational Activism (Cambridge U 2005), 20,; Tarrow, Tilly, & McAdam, (Cornell, Columbia, & Stanford) “Comparative Perspectives on Contentious Politics,” in Lichbach & Zuckerman, eds., Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure: Advancing Theory in Comparative Politics (Cambridge U, 2007), 7 & 13;; William T.R. Fox & Annette Baker Fox, “The Teaching of International Relations in the United States,” World Politics [WPS] 13 (April 1961): 339-45 & 349-59; and Judith (J. Ann) Tickner, You Just Don’t Understand: Troubled Engagements between Feminists and IR Theorists,” International Studies Quarterly (1997) 41, 611–632,; &  For data-driven … paradigm approaches, see, e.g., Tony Hey, “The Next Scientific Revolution,” Harvard Business Review (Nov 2010), 58;;; Jim Gray, “eScience - A Transformed Scientific Method,”; Hey, Tolle, & Tansley, eds., The Fourth Paradigm: Data-Intensive Scientist Discovery (Microsoft Research, 2009), 235-36; ,;;, (6 mb copy free download);;;  For such in medicine, see;;;; & DeHart, “An Ethic of Care,” American Journal of Medicine 99/1 (1995), 110. For such in astronomy, see &  For exopolitics view, see works of Michael Salla such as Galactic Diplomacy: Getting to Yes with ET (Kealakekua, HI: Exopolitics, 2013); For Quantum Hologram hypothesis see Edgar Mitchell & Robert Staretz, “The Quantum Hologram and the Nature of Consciousness,” (FREE, 2014), 8,;; and Jon Klimo, “The Role of Consciousness in Emerging New Paradigm Science: toward an Idealist Paraphysics,” (2000), 6;  Author grateful to Jon Klimo for sending this article and related insight in 2015 July 25 email.  Author co-created the first American University, School of International Service–AU-SIS, Washington DC, Peace Paradigms course syllabus in the mid-1980s, as a cornerstone for peace & conflict resolution program studies there and across the Washington DC metro-area.  AU-SIS Peace Paradigms course currently taught as core requirement for about 600 students taking AU-SIS peace & conflict resolution program, (major or minor).   Modified annually since the 1980s, that Peace Paradigms syllabus still provides a spectrum perspective of more violence to less violence, to narrate perspectives from nonviolence (peace movement campaigns), to anti-dependency (“nonaligned”) states, and world order regimes, (like U.S., U.N.), as to paradigms, outlooks, or approaches to international relations & conflict resolution.



2015.7-9 Report on Apartheid-Nonviolence 101 

_ Webchart 2: Nonviolent–Nonkilling Training Outcomes

_ Webchart 3: Nonviolent Training Outcome Chart Comparing Interpositioning Criteria

_ 2015 Online Nonviolence ‒ Civil Disobedience Syllabi or Course Outlines


Webcharts 2 & 3 aim to seek or provoke dialogue on when, where, & what nonviolent conflict resolution and civil disobedience means in international or planetary … nonviolence applications ― e.g., ecofeminism, cyber-struggle, war (tax) resistance, restorative justice, & global peace teams ― so as to update methodologies beyond currently-verified “199” methods explored in Gene Sharp–Swarthmore College dBase lists.  If understood correctly, Method #199 includes many ways of using bicycle u-locks, pioneered, as it were, by eco-groups like EarthFirst & GreenPeace–Ruckus.  Methods #200 & beyond tend to concern eco-feminist nonviolence-civil disobedience data-driven ways of locally & globally changing consciousness as consensus; Transcending earlier paradigmatic ways of theory- and evidence-driven changes influencing social–national change.  Suggestions welcome — If used in writing Nonviolence 101 Manual, all methods suggested beyond #200 will be fully cited & sourced.


_ Webchart 2: Nonviolent–Nonkilling Training Outcomes Chart Comparing Military & Nonviolence–Nonkilling:

Military Teams

Nonviolent–Nonkilling Teams


Need to transcend blood-lust & dogmatic militarism typified by imperial or nation-state gladiatorial ‘slaves’ or republican-“citizen” militarization.  Need to join well-trained, intercultural coalition-building with police forces; including restorative justice.

More planetary than international consciousness.  Not as dependent on banks central to corporativized fossil-fuel and arms & drugs business wars.  More likely to know relevant indigenous cultures & languages.  Considerably less-costly deployment per use of “soldier” vs satyagrahi; especially U.S. cost / dead “targets”.

Need for judo (Olympic-level) inter-related unarmed, nonlethal styles of close combat, including submission holds & how to fall with minimum injuries.

Living-working (interpositioning) within context of prolonged or protracted wars.  More integrated into community-based (local-global) needs & rights.  Judo leverage applied organizationally. 

Need to correlate intervention with blue-helmeted U.N. and white-helmeted Arab States-style interpositioning groups.

Defensive – offensive (friend vs foe or enemy) dichotomy not primary in training or practice.


Need to standardize gender parity beyond sexual assault & torture associated with patriarchal military violence.


More likely to share trust within ranks, vs militarized sexual assault-torture trends.  More equitable gender distribution in teams than in hierarchically-grouped military contingents.



Need to be highly-mobile, yet not dependent on fossil fuel energy.


Less dependent on fossil-fuel-war-hegemony if using wind, hydro, solar ... energy power.

Need to resolve gender & indigenous disparity in host countries.

Not as likely to be drawn into child abuse or prostitution as U.N. peacekeepers.  More likely to deploy gender parity-conscious forces, as in Nonviolent PeaceForce NP-South Sudan.


Webchart 3: Nonviolent Training Outcome Chart Comparing Interpositioning Criteria; By Date, Event-Trainers-Writers, & Outcome (Win-Win vs Win-Lose...)





Outcome (Win-Win vs Win-Lose...)


2015 -


U.S., Israel — Consumer boycott, divestment, sanctions campaigns of war corporations.

Diverting billions in dollars USD from U.S.–Israeli wars.




Serbia–Kosovo peace teams vs NATO bombing

Rule-of-law women’s’ courts, & event verifications.[1][1]



AFSC & Jewish Voice for Peace join Israel–Palestine warmaking divestment campaign.

Training college boycott & divestment strategies.[1][1]



Philippines & South Sudan — Nonviolent Peaceforce–NP.  Filipinos interpositioned, shielding rebel from dictatorship military.

Training via 1986 People Power nonviolent liberation coup d’etat campaign prototypes.[1][1]



Sri Lanka — NP & Peace Brigades Int’l–PBI.


GroundWork, Greenpeace Africa, & Earthlife Africa‒Johannesburg


Rachel Corrie Foundation & US Campaign to End Israeli Occupation–USCEIO against Caterpillar & Veolia….

Aiding & shielding 300,000 Tamil refugees.

Occupying Eskom Park, Africa’s largest coal–nuclear energy complex. [1] [1]

Isolating congressional U.S.–Israeli war-profiteering.[1][1]



Guatemala–PBI attorney, Edgar Pérez, litigates torture trials vs former President Efraín Rios Montt.  Christian Peacemaker Teams–CPT mark 25 years of interpositioning in Columbia, Kurdish-Iraq & Hebron – Israel-Palestine.

Meta (formerly Michigan) Peace Team



Gaza Palestinian Center for Human Rights standardized training criteria unit.

Enabling indigenous, small-farming co-op communities.[1][1]

Organizing sentencing & arrest appeal coalitions.[1][1]


Maintaining a “near permanent” Michigan and Palestine & Israel mobile team presence.[1][1]

Tracking human needs & rights trainings annually, via ISM.[1][1]



Colombia — PBI & Fellowship of Reconciliation–FOR litigation reaches Inter-American Court of Human Rights.

Vietnam — Oxfam, Mennonite Central Committee–MCC.

USCEIO identifies U.S.-Israeli arms sales.

Shielding trade unions & farming cooperatives.[1][1]


Supporting sustainable rice farming, despite U.S. wars. [1] [1]

NATO-Israel Boycott.[1][1]



Mexico–PBI & Zapatistas mobilize Association of Relatives of Detained, Disappeared & Victims of Human Rights Abuses‒AFADEM.


Supporting Mutual Support Group‒GAM (Guatemala) and Committee of Mothers & Relatives of the Disappeared‒COMADRES (El Salvador).[1][1]



Palestine — NP, PBI, & Nonviolence International–NI; 2006 Palestinian elections monitored by 35 peacekeepers, 9 countries.

U.S. — Veterans for Peace–VfP, Afghan & Iraq Veterans Against War–IVAW.

Enabling Bethlehem, Ramallah, & Jerusalem elections; via UNDP & AFSC-Jerusalem.[1][1]

Appeal for Redress to withdraw military from oil wars.



Estonia — Albert Einstein Institute–AE nonviolence training in OTPOR.


eVoting teledemocracy; Ending Milosevic’s Serbia regime.[1][1]




U.S.Puerto-Rican Vieques Roosevelt Roads. Demilitarization –Veterans for Peace–VfP, Peacemakers.

Halting bombing & ROTC; Evicting U.S. Navy; Converting military into civilian airports; Coping with long-term toxic after-effects.




Rwanda-Burundi wars of attrition in most densely-populated African nation-state.

Healing & Rebuilding our Communities–HROC Manual, Quaker Peace Teams[1][1]



Israel & South Africa — FOR, UDF, & VfP.


Coalition-building conscientious objector right to refuse to kill in or for apartheid nation-states.[1][1]





Balkan Peace Teams vs NATO bombing

Muslim & Christian Kraijna-Osijek Croatia reconciliation.[1][1]




Serbia, Former Yugoslavia — Otpor, AE.

Overthrowing Milosevic, via International Criminal Court.




U.S. — Shoshone Reservation.  Israel — Christian Peacemaker Teams–CPT & International Solidarity Movement–ISM.


Protesting Atomic Arms Race, downwind;[1][1] Supporting U.N. Temporary Int’l Presence–TIP Team in Hebron, Israel.




U.S. Upper Chesapeake Bay— Greenpeace–GP concern over Post-Cold War weapons disposal.

Persuading U.S. Army to neutralize, not “burn” (spread) chlorine-based weapons of mass destruction across Chesapeake.




Philippines — FOR.

Shielding Rebel Army (Ramos) from Dictator Army (Marcos).




Costa Rican challenge to Iran-Contra-Cocaine



Iran, Central America — School of the Americas Watch–SOAW & FOR.

Christic Institute prompts U.S. peace movement campaigns against U.S. isthmian wars.

Mass critique of “team”-torture in arms-&-drug business.




Nevada-Shoshone Anti-Nuclear movement – Pace Bene FOR, WILPF, WRL.

Protesting atomic blasts.



GP & Larzac Gandhian communities protest France & Pacific Islands nuclearization.


Irani nonviolence abolishes U.S.-funded & trained SAVAK police torture; promotes wages, benefits, & political prisoner release.

Protesting atomic arms race, Protesting military land seizures.

Liberating oil profits from transnational corporate hegemony. [1] [1]



30,000 Chinese unarmed workers interposition between Ultra-Maoist Red Guard factions.

Halting Chinese civil war. [1] [1]




Global — Women suffrage movements for right-to-vote & safe contraception in family-fertility planning — Women’s International League of Peace & Freedom–WILPF.

Enacting suffrage, anti-war toy campaigns; In-process. 






_ 2015 Online Nonviolence ‒ Civil Disobedience Syllabi or Course Outlines


Brandeis, Intro, Fellman

U of Waterloo, Intro, Funk

U of Toronto, Intro, Chass & Laroche

UC-San Diego, 1960s, Gagnon

American U, Gender, Wien

U of W Ontario, 1960s, Sendzikas

Houston CC, Gandhian Philosophy, Wrobel

U of CO, Indian Gandhism, Gautam

Starr-King, Spirituality, Blake

Starr-King, Thurman, Rankow

UC-Santa Cruz, Psychology, Hoffman

Conrad Grebel, Movements, Epp

Geneva Grad Inst, Resistance, Krause

McGill U, Third World, Norman

American U, Middle East Nonviolence, Awad

Harvard, Strategy, Djinovic & Popovic

UC-Berkeley-Theology, Merton, Ronzoni

Cndn Mennonite U, Theology, Hiebert

UNC-Charlotte, Mandela-Civil Disobedience

McGill, Underdevelopment, Norman

U of W Ontario, Law‒Civil Disobedience, D’Arcy

U of BC, Family Mediation, Kruk

U-Mass, Amherst, Civil Disobedience, Vinthagen

Tufts, Ethnology, Matsunaga

Cornell, Gandhian Civil Disobedience, Ghosh

NYU, Black Protest, Roberts



[1] [1] Christine Schweitzer, “Human Security-Providing Protection without Sticks and Carrots?” (Coventry University, 2006), 11-12,; Christine Schweitzer, Strategies of Intervention in Protracted Violent Conflicts by Civil Society Actors; The Example of Interventions in the Violent Conflicts in the Area of Former Yugoslavia, 1990 – 2002 (Coventry University: PhD dissertation, Business School, Centre for Peace and Reconciliation Studies, 2009), 203 & 234,; Staša Zajović, Slavica Stojanović, and Miloš Urošević, Women for Peace (Belgrade: Women in Black, 2013), 94 ff, 235-40, & 289,; or; Staša Zajović CV,; Madeleine Mosse, Journey to Positive Peace: Grassroots Peace Building in Kosovo (Coventry U, PhD dissertation, 2012),;,; KWN,; Carolina Sofia Oliveira Moreira, O Homem Guerreiro e os Desafios Feministas Perspectivas Teóricas Feministas em Relações  Internacionais e o Activismo Antimilitarista Feminista nos Balcãs (U of Coimbra, PhD dissertation, 2012),

[1] [1] 2013 AFSC Annual Report, 15;; TIAA-CREF — Pensions, IRAs, Life Insurance, & Mutual Fund investment syndicate.

[1] [1] NP Annual Report (2012), 4 & 10; and Lisa Schirch, Civilian Peacekeeping; Preventing Violence and Making Space for Democracy (Uppsala: Life & Peace Institute, 2006), 18 & 25;

[1] [1] 2012 Greenpeace–Africa Annual Report, 4-9;

[1] [1] US Campaign to End the Israeli Occupation Annual Report (2012), 3;; and US Campaign to End the Israeli Occupation Annual Report (2010),  Persuading groups like the Quaker Friends Fiduciary Corporation to divest from Caterpillar stocks.

[1] [1] PBI Annual Report (2011), 11, 12, & 14, PBI by then about 61% women & 39% men;

[1] [1] PBI Mexico Annual Report (2011), 5;; and Christian Peacemaker Teams Year in Review (2012, 2011), 6;;; [No U.S. Tax 990 Form filed online at GuideStar.]

[1] [1] MPT Annual Report (2010), 31; Author grateful to Peter Dougherty, Mary Hanna, & Nicole Rohrkemper for emailing  MPT International Peace Teams annual reports; & Martha Larsen, “Working with Michigan Peace Team in Palestine,”

[1] [1] PCHR Annual Report (2011), 213-214;

[1] [1] PBI Annual Report (2010), 4, 8-9, & 14;