Core Nonviolence Writers in Planetary History

Mo Di (or Moti or MoTse or Mozi)     Pioneer philosopher in China — Introduced nonviolent communal or collective self-defense in so-called martial arts; Opposed by Confucius; See Mo Tse, The Neglected Rival of Confucius, Yi-Pao Mei, ed. & trans. (London: Arthur Probsthain, 1934), 46-144; and Mozi: Basic Writings, Burton Watson, trans. (NY: Columbia University, 2003, 1963, & 1962), 156 pp. For Moist nonviolent mass struggle in the retaking of Beijing, see, e.g., Suyin Han, Wind in the Tower, Mao Tse Tung & the Chinese Revolution, 1949-1975 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1976), 129-31 and 329. See also (University of Hong Kong).

Avvai (or Avvaiar or Auvaiyar)    Introduced nonviolent resistance to imperial occupation, from her time, (early Greco–Roman Empire), in Southern India, to later motivate Gandhian liberation from English colonialism — from Southern Indian communities like Gandhigram and the Gramdan–Land Reclamation Movements. See, e.g., C. Rajagopalachari, Avvaiar, A Great Tamil Poetess (Bombay, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1971), 32 pp; Many sources in Hindi & Tamil languages; See also

Yeshua (or Jesus)    Introduced nonviolent liberation from the Greco–Roman Empire; See, e.g., Walter Wink, Jesus and Nonviolence: A Third Way (Philadelphia, PA: Fortress, Northam, Roundhouse, 2003), 96 pp. See also;;;; and

Thecla    Introduced nonviolent organizing notions among early Christians; Traveling companion being fellow Roman-Turkish citizen, Paul or Saul (Konya–Tarsus–Ephesus) — Angelic Book of Hebrews attributed to her. Co-founder of what became later identified as Sufism, (e.g., Rumi Mevlana, also being from Konya), across the Middle-East. See

Enno Gyoja (or Enno Ozunu)    Introduced nonviolent respect for nature in native Japan as “Dark Ages” began; Many sources in the Japanese language, associated with prototypical mountain retreats, in the oldest populated areas of earliest Japan (Oyamato), from the ancient city of Nara to the primordial, montane peninsular mountains overlooking Hiroshima and Nagasaki. See also Tenko Nishida, A New Road to Ancient Truth (NY: Horizon, 1972 / 1969), 183 pp; and,,;;; and

Rabi’a    Introduced nonviolent respect for her gender in native Iraq; Early “Middle Ages” — Full Arabic name: Rabi’a alQadawiyyah alQassiyah; (near Basra, Shatt alArab); Like-minded leaders interrelated from al-Hallaj (Iraq), Ibn alArabi (Cairo, Baghdad, & Cordoba), Rumi Mevlana (Konya, Turkey, & Iran-Persia), as Muslim Sufis, to Isaac Luria, (like Rebecca, as to the Judaic Qabala). See Widad El Sakkakini, First Among Sufis: the Life and Thought of Rabia al-Adawiyya, The Woman Saint of Basra (London: Octagon Press, 1982), 85 pp.; Charles Upton, Doorkeeper of the Heart: Versions of Rabi’a (Putney, VT: Threshold, 1988), 52 pp; and

Patanjali    Introduced nonviolent wholistic counseling in native Southern India, around Bangalore (current digital core of South Asia); Co-founder of Yoga, and like Avvai, an early precursor to Gandhian liberation methodologies, as well as a pioneer, in academic Hindu (including Gujarati, Marathi, ...) & Sanscrit Languages, of the word Ahimsa. See also Yoga: Discipline of Freedom: the Yoga Sutra Attributed to Patanjali (NY: Bantam Books, 1998), 114 pp; and

Sojourner Truth    Introduced nonviolent respect for gender and spirituality in early U.S. Civil Rights Struggle against Slavery; from her Dutch, Mohawk, and Western African roots; Her work was carried on by women like Fanny Lou Hamer and Septima Poinsette Clark, (the latter teaching pre-literate adults to read in 90 days). See Olive Gilbert, Narrative of Sojourner Truth (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2001 / 1998 / 1884), 264 pp; See also;;;; and

Joan Mary Fry    Introduced nonviolent change in English law and prison reform, with her sister, Margery; Co-founded international feeding programs for children of war (Greece, Austria, Germany, & Russia); Connected war violence, whatever side, to domestic abuse — Active with Corder Catchpool in struggle to legalize resistance to war conscription in England and Germany, across both 20th-Century World War fronts. See Joan Mary Fry, The Way of Peace and Other Papers (London: Headley, 1904), 135 pp.; Joan Mary Fry, In Downcast Germany: 1919-1933 (London: Clarke, 1944), 146 pp.; Corder Catchpool, Letters of a Prisoner for Conscience Sake (London, Allen & Unwin, 1941), 163 pp; and Margery Fry, Arms of the Law (London: Gollancz, 1951), 255 pp. For relevant United Nations authors, stemming from authors like Joan Mary Fry, and her family, see “Karl Jung,” “Inga Thorsson,” and “Salvador de Madariaga”, in Linus Pauling, ed., (United Nations) World Encyclopedia of Peace (Oxford & NY: Pergamon, 1986), 4 Vols., s.v.; Paul Hubers & Abdul Aziz Said.

Te Whiti    Introduced nonviolent liberation Maori (New Zealand) struggle that resounds planetwide; Forerunner of global pre-Gandhian anti-nuclear and “Green Peace” strategies — demos, sit-ins, guerrilla theatre, war tax resistance, and ‘packing the jails’ in restorative justice struggles. See Rowe Morrow, Pax Pacifica, Case Studies in Non-Violent Action in the South Pacific Area (O’Connor: Australia Yearly Meeting of Friends/Quakers, 1979), 216-239; and related works by Rachel Carson or Linus Pauling, or on Kwakiutl/Kwakwalla cultural ecology. In turn ‘Aussie’ Jo Valentine may have been the first nationally-elected anti-nuclear congressional or parliamentary Senate leader (1984), over resistance to global oil–, space–, and nuclear–U.S.–weapons deployment–counter-intelligence. See;;; and

Florence Kelley    Introduced nonviolent struggle for 40-hour work-week for women and consumer legislation — abolishing child labor in what became the U.S. Social Security system, (in the Great Depression); and initiating legal struggle against nuclear radiation in warfare and workplace and for a socially-conscious national medical insurance plan. Mentored such leaders as Alice Hamilton, the first U.S. industrial medicine physician, and Frances Perkins, first woman U.S. Presidential Cabinet Member (Labor Dept). For reconnecting tools of production to peace with justice dialogue, see FK, Modern Industry in Relation to Family, Health, Education and Morality (Westport, CT: Hyperion Reprint, 1914/1975), 35-122. See also;;; and

Lev Tolstoï (or Tolstoy)    Introduced Slavic-based nonviolence; Skilled in Chinese, Slavic, and Euro-languages. Used simple building designs advancing Tolstoyan communities, to address basic human needs of housing, health, education, and employment — as would Dorothy Day, Raphael Lemkin, Scott Nearing & Helen Nearing, and;;;;;;;;;; (Chrysalis Farm, Davenport, WA).

Mohandas (& Kasturba)    Gandhi Introduced nonviolent Third World liberation struggle, inspiring Africa, Asia, and Latin American freedom struggle; Forerunner of Martin Luther King, Jr., Helder Camara, Cesar Chávez, and Adolfo Pérez Esquivél. See MG, The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, 6th rev. ed. (New Delhi: Ministry of Information & Broadcasting/MIB, Govt. of India, 2000-2001), 100 vols; MG, Mahatma Gandhi, Multimedia, e-Book (New Delhi: MIB; Icon Softec), 1999 CD-Rom, with 100 vols in digital format; and online, e.g., Autobiography of Mohandas Gandhi:; CLAIP: Latin American Council of Peace Research –; Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, Christ in a Poncho: Testimonials of the Nonviolent Struggles in Latin America (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1983);,, and, as well as Paul Hubers, “A Global Methodology of Nonviolence,” Gandhi Marg (New Delhi, India) 97 (April 1987): 7-19; in addition to works concerning Simón Kimbangú, Congo, Africa.

Alice Paul    Wrote Equal Rights Amendment/ERA for gender parity. See AP, Towards Equality, A Study of the Legal Position of Women in the U.S. (Washington, DC: American University, LLD, 1928), second of two doctoral dissertations, in many languages. She wrote the ERA for gender parity, and to discourage military conscription in the nation-state system — advocating one law, one vote, for each individual, regardless of age, race, gender, or religion. Gender vote parity struggle sacrificed over 40 “blue-blood” women hunger-striking to death for voting rights. See; and

Martin Luther King, Jr.    Introduced cultural meaning of religious leadership, overturning orthodox “realism” or racism, to transcend realism–racism common to U.S. “Brahman” class. See,; MLK, Jr., Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? (Beacon, 1968), 209 pp; Coretta Scott King, My Life with Martin Luther King, Jr. (NYC: H. Holt, 1993), 335 pp.; and Mary King, Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Power of Nonviolent Action (UNESCO, 1999), 530 pp; The more fiery works of MLK, Jr. play the world’s religions off against each other, in favor of a beloved community able to effect changes for the better by mass organizing, despite race and poverty — to universalize the human right to employment.

Abraham John (A.J.) Muste    Introduced training options creating the nonviolent direct action and civil rights struggle of the 1950s and 1960s. Like Martin Luther King, Jr., referred to at times as a “Gandhi” of Northern America; Co-founder of the planet’s oldest peace group — the (International) Fellowship of Reconciliation, along with the (CIA–FBI-terminated) Brookwood College, as predecessor for the Highlander Folk School, (Origin of songs like “We Shall Overcome” ). See AJM, Non-violence in an Aggressive World (NY, London: Harper & Brothers, 1940), 211 pp; Howard Zinn, ed., The Power of Nonviolence: Writings by Advocates of Peace (various editions);;;;;;;; and

Arthur Dunham    Introduced nonviolent social community organizing work, professionally, across the planet’s universities, after 1913-1919 prison resistance to military conscription. AD, Narrative of a Conscientious Objector (1915-1917 mss.), and AD, “Some Principles of Community Development,” International Review of Community Development 11 (1963), 141-51. Austria, Netherlands, and Costa Rica led the First United Nations-sponsored resolutions for the right to refuse to kill for the nation-state, (U.N. E/CN 4/1987/L73, 1987). For struggle establishing conscientious objector status in English law, see John W. Graham, Conscription and Conscience, A History 1916-1919 (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1922), 344-351. Legal benchmark–English Law prison struggle costs: 71 dead, 31 insane, many tortured, & permanently disabled. Austria and South Africa have pioneered tolerance constitutionally, as to legalizing resistance to military conscription. See also; and

Henriëtte Roland Holst    Introduced nonviolent struggle against Fascist/Nazi dictatorship in 1940s War, based on Gandhian struggle in South Africa and Mennonite example, of, for instance, the Rembrandt family. For writings, still mostly in the Dutch language, see HRH, Gandhi (Amsterdam: Ploegsma, 1947), 210 pp; HRH, De Revolutionaire Massa-Aktie; Een Studie (Rotterdam, W.L. & J. Brusse, 1918), 429 pp; HRH, Generalstreik und Sozialdemokratie (Dresden: Kaden, 1906), 208 pp; and HRH, Rosa Luxemburg; Ihr Leben und Wirken (Zürich: Jean Christophe-Verlag, 1937), 223 pp; in addition to her many poetry and literature works. See also ; and

Sarojini Naidu    Introduced nonviolent gender liberation struggle from her native India and Southern Africa; First Asian Indian woman granted an English graduate degree, from Cambridge University; skilled in many languages; led Indian Congress of South Africa as Gandhian struggle began — became world “eyes and ears” for initial planetary Gandhian struggle. (Her family became one of the first “Third World” intellectual families skilled in both Asian and European sciences, from medicine to biophysics, East–&–West.) For her decisive leadership in the bloody, crucial April 1930 Dharasana Saltworks Swaraj Free–India Campaign, between Mumbai and Ahmedabad, see Robert Payne, The Life & Death of Mahatma Gandhi (NY: E.P. Dutton, 1969), 396-98; SN, Speeches and Writings of Sarojini Naidu (Madras: GA Natesan, nd); SN, The Mahatma and The Poetess: Being a Selection of Letters Exchanged Between Gandhiji and Sarojini Naidu (Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1998), 176 pp; Raj Kumar, Sarojini Naidu: Charismatic Indian Woman (Jaipur, India: Pointer & Aavishkar, 2000), 262 pp; and various anti-apartheid works, especially by Albertina and Walter Sissulu. See also; ;; and

Bonnie Day    Introduced nonviolent fundraising, against militarist & nationalist war taxes, and for hospitals in Hanoi & Haiphong, Vietnam; Exiled from U.S. to Canada when over age 60 — became voice of AMEX exile experience as top Canadian poet; Exiled for couriering mass amounts of money from U.S. to Canada, whence (via Quakers & Mennonites) to South-East Asian Clinics & Hospitals. See BD, This Life One Leaf; Collected Poems (Toronto, Ont.: SAANNES, 1972), 110 pp.; See also;;;;;;;; and; and

Gene Sharp    Introduced Civilian-Based Defense aspects to nonviolence in practice; Co-Founded the Albert Einstein Institution for Peace at Harvard University, with many training sites across the planet; Parallel to skeptical works of Arne Naess in Europe. See GS, Gandhi as a Political Strategist: With Essays on Ethics and Politics (Boston/New Delhi: P. Sargent P/Gandhi Media Centre, 1973/1999), 357 pp.; and GS, The Politics of Nonviolent Action (Boston: P. Sargent / Initially Funded by military groups like the Pentagon’s DARPA, 1973), 3 v. (902 p.), v. 1. Power and Struggle, v.2. Methods of Nonviolent Action, v. 3. Dynamics of Nonviolent Action; as well as,;;; and

Mubarak Awad    Co-Founder of Palestinian Intifada, (from Arabic verb for shaking, or quaking, the dirt off from one’s feet, as recommended by Jesus or Yeshua to earliest followers); Founder of Nonviolence International, National Youth Advocate Program (Washington, D.C.), International Youth Advocate Foundation, and the Palestinian Center for the Study of Nonviolence (Jerusalem). See also Mubarak Awad, “Non-Violent Resistance: A Strategy for the Occupied Territories,” Journal of Palestine Studies (1 July 1985) pp. 22-36; or at; Linda Wertheimer, “Israel Allows Palestinian Exiled Dissident to Return,” NPR Show: All Things Considered (8 Sept 1993); MA & Edy Kaufman, “Back from South Africa; Lessons for the Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process,” Tikkun 10/5 (Sept 1995), 63; MA & Edy Kaufman, “SA Lesson for Israel & Palestinians,” Business, 3 May 1996, 15; MA & Paul Hubers, “Nonviolence in the Intifada: Long-Term Costs & Values,” Peace Research (Winnipeg) 25/3 (August 1993): 61-70, (From Paper Presented at the Int’l Peace Research Assn Conf., Kyoto, Japan, July 1992); MA & Abdul Aziz Said, “Eight Steps to Israeli Palestinian Peace,” Peaceworkers (2000, CA),; Paul Hubers & Abdul Aziz Said, “Convergence of Global Nonviolence in the Middle-East,” Int’l Journal of Nonviolence (1996): 182-95; Metta Spencer, “Nonviolent Resistance in the Holy Land,”; MA & Jonathan Kuttab, “Nonviolent Resistance in Palestine: Pursuing Alternative Strategies,” 29 March 2002,; and (Paul Hubers, co-ed.), George Kuttab, My Family and Palestine — My Homeland; Fiftieth Wedding Anniversary Book, 1999-2002.